- Size and density of cities. The great enlargement of an organised population meant a much wider level of social integration.
- Full-time specialisation of labour. Specialisation of production among workers was institutionalised, as were systems of distribution and exchange.
- Concentration of surplus. There were social means for the collection and management of the surplus production of farmers and artisans.
- Class-structured society. A privileged ruling class of religious, political and military functionaries organised and directed the society.
- State organisation. There was a well-structured political organisation with membership based on residence. This replaced political identification based on kinship
- Monumental public works. There were collective enterprises in the form of temples, palaces, storehouses and irrigation systems.
- Long-distance trade. Specialisation and exchange were expanded beyond the city in the development of trade.
- Standardized, monumental artwork. Highly developed art forms gave expression to symbolic identification and aesthetic enjoyment.
- The art of writing facilitated the processes of social organisation and management.
- Arithmetic geometry and astronomy. Exact, predictive science and engineering were initiated.
Link(s) and Source(s):
Source: Urban Geography: A Global Perspective Pacione 2e Pb – Pdf .., https://epdf.tips/urban-geography-a-global-perspective-pacione-2e-pb.html (accessed September 19, 2018).