Ten characteristics of an urban civilization

  1. Size and density of cities. The great enlargement of an organised population meant a much wider level of social integration.

 

  1. Full-time specialisation of labour. Specialisation of production among workers was institutionalised, as were systems of distribution and exchange.

 

  1. Concentration of surplus. There were social means for the collection and management of the surplus production of farmers and artisans.

 

  1. Class-structured society. A privileged ruling class of religious, political and military functionaries organised and directed the society.

 

  1. State organisation. There was a well-structured political organisation with membership based on residence. This replaced political identification based on kinship

 

Secondary characteristics

 

  1. Monumental public works. There were collective enterprises in the form of temples, palaces, storehouses and irrigation systems.

 

  1. Long-distance trade. Specialisation and exchange were expanded beyond the city in the development of trade.

 

  1. Standardized, monumental artwork. Highly developed art forms gave expression to symbolic identification and aesthetic enjoyment.

 

  1. The art of writing facilitated the processes of social organisation and management.

 

  1. Arithmetic geometry and astronomy. Exact, predictive science and engineering were initiated.

Link(s) and Source(s):

Source: Urban Geography: A Global Perspective Pacione 2e Pb – Pdf .., https://epdf.tips/urban-geography-a-global-perspective-pacione-2e-pb.html (accessed September 19, 2018).

Origin of world “Town”Early Urban Hearths

ZigurratCity is Built Layer by Layer

Dimensions of Smart City ,First Urbanization in India

Importance of Urban Biodiversity ,City Classification by Harris

City Classification by NelsonUndersatnding Urban Poverty

Urban Poverty Differs from Rural Poverty

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About Rashid Faridi

I am Rashid Aziz Faridi ,Writer, Teacher and a Voracious Reader.
This entry was posted in earth, urban morphology, Urban Studies. Bookmark the permalink.

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