Climate of North America: General Characteristics and Climate Regions

North America, the third largest continent is spread over 24,346,000 sq km. North America includes all of the mainland and related offshore islands lying North of the Isthmus of Panama which connects it with South America. It has a variety of climate, from the dry, bitter cold of the Arctic to the steamy heat of the tropics. The interior of Greenland, always at subzero temperatures is permanently covered by an icecap,. The North American tundra, the vast treeless plain of the far north, has temperature rises above freezing for only a short period each summer. In the far south there are low-lying areas which are always hot and rainy.

Most part of the rest of North America is cold in the winter and warm in the summer, with moderate precipitation. Some areas have mild winters and long, hot summers and others have harsh winters and short summers. North America extends to within 10° of latitude of both the equator and the North Pole, embraces every climatic zone, from tropical rain forest and savanna on the lowlands of Central America to areas of permanent ice cap in central Greenland. Subarctic and tundra climates prevail in N Canada and N Alaska, and desert and semiarid conditions are found in interior regions cut off by high mountains from rain-bearing westerly winds. Fortunately , a large part of the continent has temperate climates very favorable to human settlement and agriculture.


Canada’s climate varies wildly based on geography, from perma-frost in the north to four distinct seasons towards the equator. In this region the temperature can climb up to 35 degrees Celsius in the summer and descend to a chilly -25 degrees Celsius during winter.

 Canada’s climate is characterized by its diversity, as temperature and precipitation differ depending on where you are and what time of year it is. Other than the North where it’s above freezing for only a few months a year, most Canadian cities are within 300 km of the southern border, where mild springs, hot summers and pleasantly crisp autumns are common during the majority of the year.

The West Coast

British Columbia’s coast have the most temperate climate in Canada. Warm airstreams from the Pacific Ocean keep the vegetation growing. It rarely snows in the low-lying areas, and the Coastal Range and the Rocky Mountains block the Pacific air from the Prairies. The moist air leaves the coast over the mountains, so it cools and falls on the western slopes in heavy amounts of rain and snow. The valleys between the mountain ranges experience hot summers almost completely devoid of precipitation.

The Prairies

The Canadian Prairies extend east from the Rocky Mountains to the Great Lakes. Farming is out in force in these regions. Cold winters and humid, hot summers are the norm, with a tolerable amount of snow and rain. Spring showers and temperate autumn weather makes the Prairies one of the top grain-growing areas of the world.

The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Region

Over half the population of Canada lives near the Great Lakes or along the St. Lawrence River. Winter is very snowy and wind-chilled, while summers are humid and longer than elsewhere in Canada. Rainfall is sufficient to sustain some of the best farming areas in Canada.

Atlantic Canada

This region features one of the most rugged and most variable climates anywhere in the country. In winter, temperatures can vary wildly as Arctic air is replaced by maritime air from passing storms. Snowfall is relatively heavy, and fog is often present in spring and at the onset of summer. July is the warmest month with an average temperature of 16 to 18 degrees Celcius.

The North

North of the Prairies and the populated Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Region is a vast boreal forest. This area is snow-covered most of the year, and summer lasts approximately two months. Above the tree-line lies the Arctic. Here, temperatures rise above freezing only a few weeks a year, and the ground remains permanently frozen.


The climate in USA varies across different parts of the country. Generally, the western and southern parts of US have warmer weather as compared to the eastern and northern parts. The eastern/northern parts of US experience harsh winters with heavy snowfall but the summers are pleasant. The western/southern part has extremely hot summers and comparatively tolerable winters. Find out where you are likely to stay in the US and plan accordingly.
USA can be divided into six climate regions, excluding Alaska, Hawaii and outlying territories. The climate varies considerably between different regions.

  • Northwest Pacific
  • Mid/South Pacific
  • Midwest
  • Northeast
  • Southeast
  • Southwest

Northwest Pacific:

(Includes states like Oregon and Washington to the crest of the Cascade Mountains)

This is the perhaps the wettest part of the country. There are scattered rain showers all year round. Temperatures are mild averaging around 32.2 degree C. The summer months are pleasantly warmer but never too hot. You can see fogs along the coast during the warmer weather but the fog is less dense during mid-day.

Mid/South Pacific Rockies:

(Includes states like California, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah and Nevada)

These states have generally dry and delightful summers. California has excellent weather all the year round, with the northern part of the state somewhat cooler (quiet chilly in the winter but seldom freezing). There are very few places in California that experience snow, and the state is known for its nice weather. Mostly all the cities have tolerable winters.

The winter months in the other states like Montana, Idaho and Wyoming can be very cold, with temperatures dropping well below 0 degree F. Colorado, Utah and Nevada are known for their excellent skiing.


(Includes states like Dakotas, Kansas, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana)

This region is moderately dry. Precipitation occurs mainly in late spring and early summer. Summers are pleasant but winter time can be harsh, with lots of snow and heavy chilly winds. Extremes within the Midwest can drop down to -50 degree F.


(Includes states like Ohio, Pennsylvania, Washington DC, Maryland). 

This entire area is moderately rainy. In winter, the region experiences heavy snow and freezing rain. Summers are usually pleasant, sunny and warm. The fall is especially beautiful in wooded areas.


(Includes states like portions of Arkansas and Louisiana, Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia)

Like the Northeast, this entire area experiences moderate rains fairly evenly throughout the year. The Spring, Summer and Fall seasons are all very pleasant. Some snow and freezing rain falls in winter but for the most part, the winters are quite mild and short lived.Southern Florida, like California, usually has excellent weather all the year round.


(Includes states like Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma and western portions of Arkansas and Louisiana) 

This is the hottest and high rainfall region of the US. You must be prepared to face heavy rains accompanied with thunder storms, dangerous lightening and occasional tornadoes. The winters are generally short but some freezing rains do occur. The spring and fall seasons are quite long and temperatures are generally excellent. The summers are very hot with temperatures approaching and exceeding 100 degree F on many days.


 The Climate in Mexico varies according to its topography. Along the both coasts  of the country the climate is hot and humid, unbearably so in the summer. Inland communities at higher elevations such as Guadalajara (5200 ft above sea level) and in particular close-by Lake Chapala, are much dryer and more temperate. Mexico City with its much higher elevation of 2300 sq meters above sea level, can reach freezing temperatures in the winter. You’ll be surprised to find snow-capped volcanoes. San Miguel de Allende also experiences colder winters due to its close proximity to Mexico City.

About three times as large as Texas, it is shaped roughly like a wedge, widest in the north and tapering to the narrow Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the south. It is situated between 14° and 32°N, the northern half of the country lying outside the tropics.

Almost two-thirds of the country consists of plateaux and high mountains with a climate that is warm-temperate; other parts have a tropical climate with temperature reduced by altitude.

There are three important climatic influences which help to determine the character of the climate in Mexico and her different regions. The cold Californian current, which sweeps southwards on the Pacific coast, has the effect of lowering temperatures and reducing rainfall on the west coast as far south as the tip of the peninsula of Lower California.

This and the influence of the North Pacific anticyclone help to make much of northwestern Mexico desert or semi-desert; this is a continuation of the dry zone of the United States in southern California, New Mexico, and Arizona.

The warm waters of the Caribbean Sea, and the influence of the constant northeast trade winds, make the eastern coastal region a typical tropical coast with a marked single wet season in summer. The weather and climate of this region, particularly south of Tampico, have much in common with that of the Caribbean Islands.

An important influence is the presence to the north of the great continental landmass of North America. This area becomes very cold in winter – particularly when cold air sweeps down from the Canadian Arctic – and very warm in summer. The northern part of Mexico shares these extreme temperature conditions.

In winter cold waves, or ‘northers’, can bring near-freezing conditions for a few days to the east coast as far south as Tampico or Veracruz. Snow has fallen as far south as Tampico, which is within the tropics. The west coast is protected from such cold waves by the mountains and plateaux of central Mexico.

As in other mountainous South and Central American countries, the climatic zones are described on the basis of altitude, using Spanish terms: tierra caliente, the area below about 600 m; tierra templada, the land between 600 m and 1,800 m; and tierra fria, the mountains and plateaux above this level.

Only a very narrow coastal belt on the Pacific shore falls into the tierra caliente category, but there is a more extensive area on the Caribbean shore, including the whole Yucatan peninsula.

The largest part of Mexico falls into tierra templada and tierra fria. This division takes little account of rainfall and is mainly on the basis of temperature. In most of the tierra fria, frost is frequent at night in winter and snow can occur anywhere, but only lies above 3,000-3,600 m/10,000-12,000 ft.

The rainy season over the whole country is the period of high sun from May to October. The rest of the year is not completely rainless, but the amount and frequency of rain in the winter season is low.

The wettest part of the country is the lowland on the Caribbean coast; the north coast of the Yucatan peninsula is relatively much drier than the east coast or the interior. Annual rainfall here is between 1,000  and 1,500 m, but some places in northern Yucatan get less than 500 mm.

The shores of the Pacific and Gulf of California, north of the Tropic of Cancer, get less than 250 mm of rain a year, but this increases southwards to between 1,000 mm and 1,500 mm. Rainfall is heaviest where the coast is backed by high mountains.

On the plateau, where some of the winter precipitation may fall as snow, the annual rainfall is rather less than on the coast. Much of the plateau is sheltered from maritime influences by the high mountains of the eastern and western Sierra Madre so that it has a reduced rainfall. Annual amounts of 500 mm/20 in or less in the extreme north to 875 mm in the centre and south are typical of the central highland region.

Most climate in Mexico has sunny weather for a large part of the year. The cloudiest regions are the wetter parts of the east coast and the northern part of the Pacific coast, where low cloud and fog are formed over the cold ocean current. The drier regions of the interior and much of the tierra templada have high amounts of sunshine: as much as seven or eight hours a day in the drier months to five or six during the wetter season.

Both the east and west coasts of Mexico are occasionally affected by tropical storms those develop in the Caribbean or the Pacific and bring two or three days of heavy rain. These are most likely to occur in the months August to October. Very few of these reach the strength of fully developed hurricanes; if they do, the east-coast districts are more liable to severe damage.


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Physical Divisions of North America: An Overview

North America can be divided into five physical regions: the mountainous west, the Great Plains, the Canadian Shield, the varied eastern region, and the Caribbean. Mexico and Central America’s western coast are connected to the mountainous west, while its lowlands and coastal plains extend into the eastern region.

Western Region

Young mountains are found in the west. The most familiar of these mountains are the Rockies, North America’s largest chain. The Rockies stretch from the province of British Columbia, Canada, to the U.S. state of New Mexico.

The Rocky Mountains are part of a system of parallel mountain ranges known as the Cordilleras. A cordillera is a long series of mountain ranges. Although cordilleras exist all over the world, in North America, “the Cordilleras” indicate the massive mountain ranges in the western part of the continent. The Cordilleras extend from Canada all the way to the Isthmus of Panama.

The Sierra Madre mountain system is part of the Cordilleras. The Sierra  Madre stretch from the southwestern United States to Honduras. The Sierra Madre include many high volcanoes (up to 5,636 meters) that stretch across Mexico south of the cities of Guadalajara and Mexico City.

Volcanic mountain ranges in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are also considered part of the Cordilleras. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur frequently in this region. It contributes to the rich, fertile soils of the region.

Some of the Earth’s youngest mountains are in the Cascade Range of the U.S. states of Washington, Oregon, and California. The mountains include temperate rain forest—a biome unique to the area. The temperate rain forest receives an incredible amount of precipitation, between 254 to 508 centimeters  annually.

The temperate rain forest supports a wide variety of life. The Sitka spruce, western red cedar, and Douglas fir are trees native to North America’s temperate rain forest. Some of these trees grow to more than 90 meters  tall and 3 meters  in diameter. Black bears, Roosevelt elk, and marmots are indigenous animal species.

The three major desert regions of North America—the Sonoran, Mojave, and Chihuahuan—are all in the American southwest and northern Mexico. These large deserts are located in the rain shadows of nearby mountains. The mountains block precipitation and accelerate the movement of hot, dry wind over these regions. The Sonoran is in the rain shadow of the Coast Ranges, the Mojave is in the shadow of the Sierra Nevada, and the Chihuahuan is in the shadow of the Sierra Madre.

Great Plains

The Great Plains lie in the middle of the continent. Deep, rich soil blankets large areas of the plains in Canada and the United States. Grain are  grown ba plenty  in this region hence it is called the “Breadbasket of North America,”. The region  feeds a large part of the world. The Great Plains are also home to rich deposits of oil and natural gas.

 The grassland or prairie regions of the Great Plains make up the largest biome in North America. Extreme weather prevents the growth of large plants but is perfectly suited to the native grasses that dominate the region.

Native grasses vary in size from 2 meters in tall grass prairies to only 20 or 25 centimeters in short grass prairies. Native animal species include bison, prairie dogs, and grasshoppers.

Canadian Shield

The Canadian Shield is a raised but relatively flatplateau. It extends over eastern, central, and northwestern Canada. The Canadian Shield is characterized by a rocky landscape pocked by an astounding number of lakes.

The Tundra, stretching along the northern borders of Alaska and Canada to the Hudson Bay area, is a biome common to the Canadian Shield. Tundra is where low temperatures and precipitation levels hinder tree growth. The tundra is characterized by permafrost—soil that is frozen for two or more years. This permafrost keeps moisture near the soil’s surface, promoting vegetation growth even in the extreme, Arctic conditions of the tundra.

During the summer, this top layer of soil thaws less than 10 centimeters (only a few inches) down, forming numerous shallow lakes, ponds, and bogs. Lichens, mosses, algae, and succulents take advantage of these shallow waters. In turn, they provide food for the caribou and musk ox that are typical of this area.

Eastern Region

This varied region includes the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic coastal plain.North America’s older mountain ranges, including the Appalachians, are near the east coast of the United States and Canada.
The Atlantic coastal plain extends from river, marsh, and wetland regions east of the mountains toward the sandy beaches of the Atlantic coast. Wetland areas are a biome of the eastern region and consist of areas of land whose soil is saturated with permanent or seasonal moisture. The Florida Everglades is the largest wetland system in the United States, covering more than 11,137 square kilometers) of southern Florida.

The Everglades is a biologically diverse region and contains several bordering ecosystems. Sawgrass marshes are the most iconic plant community of the Everglades and thrive on the slow-moving water of the wetlands. Alligators nest in the sawgrass, while wading birds such as egrets, herons, spoonbills, and ibises make their breeding grounds in other wetland tree species, such as cypress and mangrove.

Caribbean Region

The Caribbean Region includes more than 7,000 islands, islets, reefs, and cays. The region’s islands and smaller islets are varied in their topography; some have relatively flat and sandy terrain while others are rugged, mountainous, and volcanic.

The coral reefs and cays of the Caribbean Sea are among the most spectacular biomes in North America. A reef is a ridge of jagged rock, coral, or sand just above or below the surface of the sea. Some coral reefs surround islands, such as the Bahamas, Antigua, and Barbados. Others are found off the Florida Keys (a low bank or reef of coral, rock, or sand.

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Eight Major Industrial Regions of India

According to a popular classification there are 8 major industrial regions of India

1. Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region

2. Hugli Industrial Region.

3. Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Industrial Region

4. Gujarat Industrial Region

5. Chotanagpur Industrial Region

6. Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Industrial Region

7. Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Industrial Region

8. Kolfam-Thiruvananthapuram Industrial Region.


1. Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region:

This region extends from Thane to Pune and in adjoining districts of Nashik and Solapur. Iwn at a rapid pace in Kolaba, Ahmednagar, Satara, Sangli and Jalgaon districts also. it started in British India.

 In 1774 the island-site was obtained for construction of Mumbai port. The opening of the first railway track of 34 kms between Mumbai and Thane in 1853, opening of the Bhor and Thai Ghats respectively to Pune and Nashik and that of Suez Canal in 1869 all contributed to the development of Mumbai.

The growth of this industrial region is coincides with the growth of cotton textile industry in India. Coal was situated at a distant location  and  hydroelectric was developed in Western Ghats. Cotton was cultivated in the black cotton soil area of the Narmada and Tapi basins.

2.  Hugli Industrial Region:

Strategically situated in the province of West Bengal, this region is a narrow belt running along the river Hugli for a distance of about 100 km from Bansbaria and Naihati in the north to Birlanagar in the south. Industries have also developed in Midnapur district in the west.  Hugli proved to be the best site for the development of an inland river port as nucleus for the development of Hugli industrial region.

Kolkata,the old trading hub of late 17th century has developed into  a big  industrial centre of today.  Kolkata-Haora jointly forms the nucleus of this region. It is well- connected by the Ganga and its tributaries with the rich hinterland of Ganga-Brahmaputra plains. Besides navigable rivers, roads and the railways provided subsequent links to the great benefit of Kolkata port.

The discovery of coal and iron ore in Chotanagpur plateau, tea plantations in Assam and northern parts of West Bengal and the processing of deltaic Bengal’s jute contributed to the industrial development in this region. As further advantage ,cheap labour could be found easily from the thickly populated states of Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand and eastern part of U.P. Kolkata, as capital city of the British India (1773-1912) attracted large scale British investment of capital.

Establishment of first jute mill at Rishra in 1855 ushered in the era of modem industrial clustering in this region. A chain of jute mills and other factories could be established on either side of Hugli River with the help of Damodar valley coal. The port site was best-suited for export of raw materials to England and import of finished goods .

The role of transport and communication network has been as important as the favourable locational factors in the growth of this region. By 1921, Kolkata-Hugli region was responsible for two-thirds of factory employment in India.

Paper, engineering, textile machinery, electrical, chemical, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers and petrochemical industries have also added to the industrial development of the region. Factory of the Hindustan Motors Limited at Konanagar and diesel engine factory at Chittaranjan are landmarks of this region.

Location of petroleum refinery at Haldia has facilitated the development of a variety of industries. The major centres of this industrial region are Kolkata, Haora, Haldia, Serampur, Rishra, Shibpur, Naihati, Kakinara, Shamnagar, Titagarh, Sodepur, Budge Budge, Birlanagar, Bansbaria, Belgurriah, Triveni, Hugli, Belur, etc.

3. Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Industrial Region:

In  two states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, this region experienced the fastest industrial growth in the post-independence era. Till 1960, industries were confined to Bangalore district of Karnataka and Salem and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu. But now they have spread over all the districts of Tamil Nadu except Viluppuram.

This region is a cotton-growing one and is dominated by the cotton-textile industry. In fact cotton textile industry was the first to take roots in this region. But it has large number of silk-manufacturing units, sugar mills, leather industry, chemicals, rail wagons, diesel engines, radio, light engineering goods, rubber goods, medicines, aluminium, cement, glass, paper, cigarette, match box and machine tools, etc.

This region is away from the main coal-producing areas of the country but cheap hydroelectric power is available from Mettur, Sivasamudram, Papanasam, Pykara and Sharavati dams. Cheap skilled labour and proximity to vast local market as well as good climate have also favoured the concentration of industries in this region.

Coimbatore has grown rapidly mainly owing to its industrial growth based on Pykara power, local cotton, coffee mills, tanneries, oil presses and cement works. Coimbatore is known as Manchester of Tamilnadu because of its large-scale cotton textile industry. The establishment of public sector units at Banglore like Hindustan Aeronautics, Hindustan Machine Tools, Indian Telephone Industry and Bharat Electronics etc. has further sped up the growth of industries in the region.

Madurai is known for its cotton textiles. Visvesvarayya Iron and Steel Works is located at Bhadravati. The other important centres of this region are Sivakasi, Tiruchirapalli, Madukottai, Mettur, Mysore and Mandya. Petroleum refinery at Chennai and Narimanam and iron and steel plant at Salem are recent developments.

4. Gujarat Industrial Region:

 This region extends upto Valsad and Surat in the south and Jamnagar in the west. The region corresponds to the cotton growing tracts of the Gujarat plains and the development of this region is associated with the location of textile industry since 1860s.

Ahmedabad is near the sources of raw material as well as the marketing centres of the Ganga and Satlui plains. Availability of cheap land, cheap skilled labour and other advantages helped the cotton textile industry to develop.

The discovery and production of oil at a number of places in the Gulf of Khambhat area led to the establishment of petrochemical industries around Ankleshwar, Vadodara and Jamnagar. Petroleum refineries at Koyali and Jamnagar provide necessary raw materials for the proper growth of petrochemical industries.

The Kandla port, developed after independence, provides the basic infrastructure for imports and exports and helps in rapid growth of industries in this region. The region can now boast of diversified industries.

Besides textiles (cotton, silk and synthetic fibres) and petrochemical industries, other industries are heavy and basic chemicals, dyes, pesticides, engineering, diesel engines, textile machinery, pharmaceuticads, dairy products and food processing. The main industrial centres of this region are Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Bharuch, Koyali, Anand, Khera, Surendranagar, Surat, Jamnagar, Rajkot and Valsad.

5. Chotanagpur Industrial Region:

This region is located on the Chotanagpur plateau and extends over Jharkhand, Northern Orissa and Western part of West Bengal. The growth of the region is linked with the discovery of coal in Damodar Valley and iron ore in the Jharkhand-Orissa mineral belt. As both are found in close proximity, the region is known as the ‘Ruhr of India’.

Besides raw materials, power is available from the dam sites in the Damodar Valley and the thermal power stations based on the local coal. This region is surrounded by highly populated states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal which provide cheap labour.

The Kolkata region provides a large market for the goods produced in the Chotanagpur region. It also provides the port facility to the region. It has the advantages for developing ferrous metal industries. The Tata Iron and Steel Company at Jamshedpur, Indian Iron Steel Co., at Bumpur-Kulti, Hindustan Steel Limited at Durgapur, Rourkela and Bokaro are the important steel plants located in this region.

Heavy engineering, machine tools, fertilizers, cement, paper, locomotives and heavy electricals are some of the other important industries in this region. Important nodal centres of this region are Ranchi, Dhanbad, Chaibasa, Sindri, Hazaribagh, Jamshedpur, Daltonganj, Garwa and Japla.

6. Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Industrial Region:

The region extends from Vishakhapatnam district in the north-eastern part of Andhra Pradesh to Kurnool and Prakasham districts in the south-east and covers most of the coastal Andhra Pradesh. The industrial development of this region mainly depends upon Vishakhapatnam and Machilipatnam ports.

Developed agriculture and rich mineral resources in the hinterlands of these ports provide solid base to the industrial growth in this region. Coal fields of the Godavari basin are good source of energy. Hindustan Shipyard Ltd. set up at Vishakhapatnam, set up in 1941 is the main focus.

Petroleum refinery at Vishakhapatnam facilitated the growth of several petrochemical industries. Vishakhapatnam has the most modern iron and steel plant which have the distinction of being the only plant in India having coastal location. It uses high quality iron ore from Bailadila in Chhattisgarh.

One lead-zinc smelter is functioning in Guntur district. The other industries of this region include sugar, textiles, paper, fertilizers, cement, aluminium and light engineering. The important industrial centres of this region are Vishakhapatnam, Vijaywada, Vijaynagar, Rajahmundry, Kurnool, Elum and Guntur. Recent discovery of natural gas in Krishna- Godavari basin is likely to provide much needed energy and help in accelerated growth of this industrial region.

7. Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Industrial Region:

It is one of the fastest growing regions of India. It consists of two industrial belts adjoining Delhi. One belt extends over Agra-Mathura-Meerut and Saharanpur in U.P. and the other between Faridabad-Gurgaon- Ambala in Haryana.

The region is located far away from the mineral and power resources, and therefore, the industries are light and market oriented. The region gets power fromhydro-electricity from Bhakra-Nangal complex and thermal power from Harduaganj, Faridabad and Panipat.

Sugar, agricultural implements, vanaspati, textile, glass, chemicals, engineering, paper, electronics and cycle are some of the important industries of this region. Software industry is a recent addition, Agra and its environs have glass industry. Mathura has an oil refinery with its petro-chemical complex. One oil refinery has been set up at Panipat also.

 Gurgaon has Maruti car factory as well as one unit of the IDPL. Faridabad has a number of engineering and electronic industries. Ghaziabad is a large-centre of agro­-industries. Saharanpur and Yamunanagar have paper mills. Modinagar, Sonipat, Panipat and Ballabhgarh are other important industrial nodes of this region.

8. Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Industrial Region:

This is a small industrial region and spreads over Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alwaye, Emakulam and Allapuzha districts of south Kerala. The region is located far away from the mineral belt .Due to this distance the industrial scene here is dominated by agricultural products processing and market oriented light industries.

Plantation agriculture and hydroelectricity provide the industrial base to this region. The main industries are textiles, sugar, rubber, match box, glass, chemical fertilizers, food and fish processing, paper, coconut coir products, aluminium and cement. Oil refinery set up in 1966 at Kochi provides solid base to petrochemical industries. Important industrial centres are Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, Alluva, Kochi, Alappuzha and Punalur.

Minor Industrial Regions:

1. Ambala-Amritsar in Haryana-Punjab.

2. Saharanpur-Muzaffamagar-Bijnaur in Uttar Pradesh.

3. Indore-Dewas-Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh.

4. Jaipur-Ajmer in Rajasthan.

5. Kolhapur-South Kannada in Maharashtra-Karnataka.

6. Northern Malabar in Kerala.

7. Middle Malabar in Kerala.

8. Adilabad-Nizamabad in Andhra Pradesh.

9. AllahabadVaranasi-Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh.

10. Bhojpur-Munger in Bihar.

11. Durg-Raipur in Chhattisgarh.

12. Bilaspur-Korba in Chhattisgarh.

13. Brahmaputra Valley in Assam.

Industrial Districts:

1. Kanpur, 2 Hyderabad, 3. Agra, 4. Nagpur, 5 Gwalior, 6. Bhopal, 7. Lucknow, 8. Jalpaiguri, 9. Cuttack, 10. Gorakhpur, 11. Aligarh, 12. Kota, 13. Pumia, 14. Jabalpur, 15. Bareilly.

Source:Articles Library

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Happy Sir Syed Day: Are We Following His Vision?


The Man

Ye mera chaman hai mera chaman, main apne chaman ka bulbul hun
Sar-shaar-e-nigah-e-nargis hun, paa-basta-e-gesu-e-sumbul hun

Jo taaq-e-haram mein roshan hai, wo shama yahan bhi jalti hai
Is dasht ke goshe goshe se, ek joo-e-hayat ubalti hai
Ye dasht-e-junoon deewanon ka, ye bazm-e-wafa parwanon ki
Ye shahr-e-tarab roomanon ka, ye khuld-e-bareen armanon ki
Fitrat ne sikhai hai ham ko, uftaad yahan parwaaz yahan

Gaaye hain wafa


Majaz:An Alumnus and a Legendary Poet who created the Legandary AMU Tarna

ke geet yahan, chheda hai junoon ka saaz yahan
Ye mera chaman hai mera chaman, main apne chaman ka bulbul hun
Is bazm meiN taigheiN khencheen hain, is bazm meiN saghar tode hain
Is bazm meiN aankh bichhai hai, is bazm meiN dil tak jode hain
Har shaam hai shaam-e-Misr yahan, har shab hai shab-e-Sheeraz yahan
Hai saare jahan ka soz yahan aur saare jahan ka saaz yahan
Zarraat ka bosa lene ko, sau baar jhuka aakaash yahan
Khud aankh se ham ne dekhi hai, batil ki shikast-e-faash yahan

Jo abr yahan se uthega, wo saare jahan par barsega
Har joo-e-rawan par barsega, har koh-e-garan par barsega
Har sard-o-saman par barsega, har dasht-o-daman par barsega
Khud apne chaman par barsega, ghairon ke chaman par barsega
Har shahr-e-tarab par garjega, har qasr-e-tarab par kadkega

Ye abr hamesha barsa hai, ye abr hamesha barsega
Ye abr hamesha barsa hai, ye abr hamesha barsega
Ye abr hamesha barsa hai, ye abr hamesha barsega
Barsegaa, Barsegaa, Barsegaaa…
~ Majaz Lakhnawi

To download AMU Tarana click here.



The Mission

AMU tarana always inspires me. It gives goosebumps to me.But the same tarana raises some questions in me. Are we up to the mark for these words? Are we striving for the same degree of excellence? Have we achieved the ‘Inferadiyat‘ strived for?

The mission has evolved in a grand and beautiful university. In the physical sense the mission is fulfilled, but are we following his vision as well? I am quoting some statements from Sir Syed. I call upon all the ALIGS to introspect and to search for the answer from within.

Sons and Daughters (of MAO college later AMU)) shall go forth throughout the length and breath of the land to preach the message of free inquiry, of large hearted toleration and of pure morality”

“Acquisition knowledge of science and technology is the only solution for the problems of Muslims.”

“We will remain humiliated and rejected if we do not make progress’’ (in scientific field)

“Get rid of old and useless rituals. These rituals hinder human progress.”

“Superstition cannot be the part of Iman (faith).”

“The first requisite for the progress of a nation is the brotherhood and unity amongst sections of the society”.

“Yes the main purpose of this college (MAO) is to impart modern education to Muslims who are suffering because of lack of it but this institution is for all, Hindus and Muslims alike. Both of them need education.”

 “We (Hindus and Muslims) eat the same crop, drink water from the same rivers and breath the same air. As a matter of fact Hindus and Muslims are the two eyes of the beautiful bride that is Hindustan. Weakness of any one of them will spoil the beauty of the bride (dulhan)”.

“We (Hindus and Muslim) have evolved a new language Urdu”.

“I wish that youth of India should follow the example of young men and women of England who are religiously engaged in the hard work of industrial development of their country” (During the stay of Sir Syed in England).

“Look forward, learn modern knowledge, do not waste time in studies of old subjects of no value.”

“Ijtihad (innovation, re-interpretation with the changing times) is the need of the hour. Give up taqlid “(copying and following old values).

“Do not show the face of Islam to others; instead show your face as the follower of true Islam representing character, knowledge, tolerance and piety.”

“We should not (by remaining ignorant and illiterate) tarnish the image of our able elders”.

“All human beings are our brother and sisters. Working for their welfare is obligatory for Muslims.”

“Remember that the words Hindu and Muslim are only meant for religious distinction: otherwise all persons who reside in this country belong to one and the same nation.”

And Some More Questions:

Afzal Usmani Bhai has raised some questions. I was thinking on same line but he presented the spirit beautifully so , I am reproducing with his permission.

  1. Do we really care about Sir Syed and his mission ?

2. If we care, do we really know what was his mission ?

3. If we know what are we doing to fulfill his mission ?

4. Are we really trying to fulfill his mission or promoting our self under the pretext of promoting Sir Syed Mission ?

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