Characteristics of Rural Settlements

Traditionally, rural settlements were associated with agriculture. In modern times other types of rural communities have been developed.

The settlement where the occupation of the majority of people relate to the local natural resources is called rural settlement for example, (1) settlement of fisheries along sea coast, (2) settlement of tribal people in the forest area and (3) settlement of farmers along the banks of rivers.

There are some salient characteristics of rural settlements.

Rural area is sparsely populated because many people leaves rural areas and settles in the urban areas for more facilities.These society has homogeneity. in its profession that is their only source of earning is agriculture and this is transmitted from generation to generation.There is homogeneity in dress, language and customs. It means all these remain same because their culture is same they belong to the same area.These areas have got slow means of communication.Rural areas have very slow rate of change because of lack of education and modern technology.These settlements have got simple culture transmitted from generation to generation.Rural areas have got informal social life that is they spent their life in a. simple way.Rural communities have got strong relationships and interactions of the people. It means that they help each other in distress and shares the happiness.In such areas there is less rate of pollution because there are no factories and mills and the number of automobiles is less.In such areas people shows great hospitality to their guests and treat them as a member of a family.

Size of the Community:

The village communities are smaller in area than the urban communities. As the village communities are small, the population is also low.

Density of Population:

As the density of population is low, the people have intimate relationships and face-to-face contacts with each other. In a village, everyone knows everyone.

The primacy of Agriculture:

Agriculture is the fundamental occupa­tion of the rural people and forms the basis of the rural economy. A farmer has to perform various agricultural activities for which he needs the cooperation of other members. Usually, these members are from his family. Thus, the mem­bers of the entire family share agricultural activities. That is the reason why Lowry Nelson has mentioned that farming is a family enterprise.

Close Contact with Nature

The rural people are in close contact with nature as most of their daily activities revolve around the natural environment. This is the reason why a ruralite is more influenced by nature than an urbanite. The villagers consider land as their real mother as they depend on it for their food, clothing, and shelter.

Homogeneity of Population:

The village communities are homogenous in nature. Most of their inhabitants are connected with agriculture and its allied occupations, though there are people belonging to different castes, religions, and classes.

Social Stratification:

In rural society, social stratification is a traditional characteristic, based on caste. The rural society is divided into various strata on the basis of caste.

 Social Interaction:

The frequency of social interaction in rural areas is com­paratively lower than in urban areas. However, the interaction level possesses more stability and continuity. The relationships and interactions in the prima­ry groups are intimate. The family fulfills the needs of the members and exer­cises control over them.

It is the family, which introduces the members to the customs, traditions and culture of the society. Due to limited contacts, they do not develop individuality and their viewpoint towards the outside world is very narrow, which makes them oppose any kind of violent change.

 Social Mobility:

In rural areas, mobility is rigid as all the occupations are based on caste. Shifting from one occupation to another is difficult as caste is determined by birth. Thus, caste hierarchy determines the social status of the rural people.

 Social Solidarity:

The degree of social solidarity is greater in villages as com­pared to urban areas. Common experience, purposes, customs, and traditions form the basis of unity in the villages.

 Joint Family System :

Another characteristic feature of rural society is the joint family system. The family controls the behaviour of the individuals. Generally, the father is the head of the family and is also responsible for maintaining the discipline among members. He manages the affairs of the family.

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Urban Morphology: Introduction and Evolution

Urban morphology is the study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation. The study seeks to understand the spatial structure and character of a metropolitan area, city, town or village by examining the patterns of its component parts and the ownership or control and occupation. Typically, analysis of physical form focuses on street pattern,  plot) pattern and building pattern, sometimes referred to collectively as urban grain. Analysis of specific settlements is usually undertaken using cartographic sources and the process of development is deduced from the comparison of historic maps.

Special attention is given to how the physical form of a city changes over time and to how different cities compare to each other. Another significant part of this subfield deals with the study of the social forms which are expressed in the physical layout of a city, and, conversely, how physical form produces or reproduces various social forms.

The essence of the idea of morphology was initially expressed in the writings of the great poet and philosopher Goethe (1790). However, the term as such was first used in bioscience. Recently it is being increasingly used in geography, geology, philology and other subject areas. In geography, urban morphology as a particular field of study owes its origins to Lewis Mumford, James Vance, and Sam Bass Warner. Peter Hall and Michael Batty of the UK and Serge Salat, France, are also central figures.

Urban morphology is considered as the study of urban tissue, or fabric, as a means of discerning the environmental level normally associated with urban design. Tissue comprises coherent neighborhood morphology (open spaces, building) and functions (human activity). Neighborhoods exhibit recognizable patterns in the ordering of buildings, spaces, and functions, variations within which nevertheless conform to an organizing set of principles.

This approach challenges the common perception of unplanned environments as chaotic or vaguely organic through understanding the structures and processes embedded in urbanization. Complexity science has provided further explanations showing how urban structures emerge from the uncoordinated action of multiple individuals in highly regular ways. Amongst other things this is associated with permanent energy and material flows to maintain these structures.

Urban morphology comprises the structure of a city and pattern or plan of its development. It is actually the layout of a city both in its history as well as geographical contexts which gives it individuality. Therefore, the internal pattern or structure of each city is “unique in its particular combination of details”.

Combinations involving the structure of most American cities have a business, industrial and residential districts. The cities of the Western world in their structure display generally city centre or downtown, Central Business District (CBD) including shopping centre, industrial estate, and housing estate giving it a spatial framework in order to make sense of the environment in which people live and work.

In case of an Indian town, E. Ahmad has identified some of the components of urban morphology as site characteristics, historical background, sky-line, green open spaces, and water bodies, physical and cultural dominants. In combination these elements from the ‘urban landscape’ which is actually the soul and spirit of physical morphology of a town.

Speaking precisely, the morphology of a town is a geographic and historical interpretation of its site, situation or modality and existing layout and arrangement of houses as well as streets and loads. It also includes within its purview the development of different parts of the town and analysis of its boundary in different phases of history as well as explanation of existing land use. Urban morphology 01 a town’s anatomy and physiology are mutually interrelated.

The town is both a historical and geographical entity. Its morphology represents various elements which form part of its structure, plan, and growth. Its relief and terrain on which its nucleus seeks origin form a base. Its expansion from the nucleus shapes its morphology through streets and roads, houses and buildings and finally develops its functions as a trading and commercial centre with all the complexities of its adminis­trative and cultural services. Its plan, during various phases of history, may change to cope with the changing scenario.

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Urban Green in Bangalore

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Free download of Henri Lefebvre, Metaphilosophy, Verso until September 7, 2019

Progressive Geographies

Meta-Philosophy.jpgDownload Metaphilosophy by Henri Lefebvre – for free! – until Saturday, September 7th!

Until September 7th, we’re giving away the ebook edition of Henri Lefebvre’s Metaphilosophy. An essential book on our Philosophy: Verso Student Reading list, and a key text in Lefebvre’s oeuvre, Metaphilosophy is a milestone in contemporary thinking about philosophy’s relation to the world.

Ends Saturday, September 7th at 10.00 BST – if you have clicked through to this page after that time then you have missed this free ebook download.

Metaphilosophy
by Henri Lefebvre Edited by Stuart Elden Translated by David Fernbach

In Metaphilosophy, Henri Lefebvre works through the implications of Marx’s revolutionary thought to consider philosophy’s engagement with the world. Lefebvre takes Marx’s notion of the “world becoming philosophical and philosophy becoming worldly” as a leitmotif, examining the relation between Hegelian–Marxist supersession and Nietzschean overcoming. Metaphilosophy is conceived of as a transformation of philosophy, developing it into a programme…

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