Physical Divisions of North America: An Overview

North America can be divided into five physical regions: the mountainous west, the Great Plains, the Canadian Shield, the varied eastern region, and the Caribbean. Mexico and Central America’s western coast are connected to the mountainous west, while its lowlands and coastal plains extend into the eastern region.

Western Region

Young mountains are found in the west. The most familiar of these mountains are the Rockies, North America’s largest chain. The Rockies stretch from the province of British Columbia, Canada, to the U.S. state of New Mexico.

The Rocky Mountains are part of a system of parallel mountain ranges known as the Cordilleras. A cordillera is a long series of mountain ranges. Although cordilleras exist all over the world, in North America, “the Cordilleras” indicate the massive mountain ranges in the western part of the continent. The Cordilleras extend from Canada all the way to the Isthmus of Panama.

The Sierra Madre mountain system is part of the Cordilleras. The Sierra  Madre stretch from the southwestern United States to Honduras. The Sierra Madre include many high volcanoes (up to 5,636 meters) that stretch across Mexico south of the cities of Guadalajara and Mexico City.

Volcanic mountain ranges in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are also considered part of the Cordilleras. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur frequently in this region. It contributes to the rich, fertile soils of the region.

Some of the Earth’s youngest mountains are in the Cascade Range of the U.S. states of Washington, Oregon, and California. The mountains include temperate rain forest—a biome unique to the area. The temperate rain forest receives an incredible amount of precipitation, between 254 to 508 centimeters  annually.

The temperate rain forest supports a wide variety of life. The Sitka spruce, western red cedar, and Douglas fir are trees native to North America’s temperate rain forest. Some of these trees grow to more than 90 meters  tall and 3 meters  in diameter. Black bears, Roosevelt elk, and marmots are indigenous animal species.

The three major desert regions of North America—the Sonoran, Mojave, and Chihuahuan—are all in the American southwest and northern Mexico. These large deserts are located in the rain shadows of nearby mountains. The mountains block precipitation and accelerate the movement of hot, dry wind over these regions. The Sonoran is in the rain shadow of the Coast Ranges, the Mojave is in the shadow of the Sierra Nevada, and the Chihuahuan is in the shadow of the Sierra Madre.

Great Plains

The Great Plains lie in the middle of the continent. Deep, rich soil blankets large areas of the plains in Canada and the United States. Grain are  grown ba plenty  in this region hence it is called the “Breadbasket of North America,”. The region  feeds a large part of the world. The Great Plains are also home to rich deposits of oil and natural gas.

 The grassland or prairie regions of the Great Plains make up the largest biome in North America. Extreme weather prevents the growth of large plants but is perfectly suited to the native grasses that dominate the region.

Native grasses vary in size from 2 meters in tall grass prairies to only 20 or 25 centimeters in short grass prairies. Native animal species include bison, prairie dogs, and grasshoppers.

Canadian Shield

The Canadian Shield is a raised but relatively flatplateau. It extends over eastern, central, and northwestern Canada. The Canadian Shield is characterized by a rocky landscape pocked by an astounding number of lakes.

The Tundra, stretching along the northern borders of Alaska and Canada to the Hudson Bay area, is a biome common to the Canadian Shield. Tundra is where low temperatures and precipitation levels hinder tree growth. The tundra is characterized by permafrost—soil that is frozen for two or more years. This permafrost keeps moisture near the soil’s surface, promoting vegetation growth even in the extreme, Arctic conditions of the tundra.

During the summer, this top layer of soil thaws less than 10 centimeters (only a few inches) down, forming numerous shallow lakes, ponds, and bogs. Lichens, mosses, algae, and succulents take advantage of these shallow waters. In turn, they provide food for the caribou and musk ox that are typical of this area.

Eastern Region

This varied region includes the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic coastal plain.North America’s older mountain ranges, including the Appalachians, are near the east coast of the United States and Canada.
The Atlantic coastal plain extends from river, marsh, and wetland regions east of the mountains toward the sandy beaches of the Atlantic coast. Wetland areas are a biome of the eastern region and consist of areas of land whose soil is saturated with permanent or seasonal moisture. The Florida Everglades is the largest wetland system in the United States, covering more than 11,137 square kilometers) of southern Florida.

The Everglades is a biologically diverse region and contains several bordering ecosystems. Sawgrass marshes are the most iconic plant community of the Everglades and thrive on the slow-moving water of the wetlands. Alligators nest in the sawgrass, while wading birds such as egrets, herons, spoonbills, and ibises make their breeding grounds in other wetland tree species, such as cypress and mangrove.

Caribbean Region

The Caribbean Region includes more than 7,000 islands, islets, reefs, and cays. The region’s islands and smaller islets are varied in their topography; some have relatively flat and sandy terrain while others are rugged, mountainous, and volcanic.

The coral reefs and cays of the Caribbean Sea are among the most spectacular biomes in North America. A reef is a ridge of jagged rock, coral, or sand just above or below the surface of the sea. Some coral reefs surround islands, such as the Bahamas, Antigua, and Barbados. Others are found off the Florida Keys (a low bank or reef of coral, rock, or sand.

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Eight Major Industrial Regions of India

According to a popular classification there are 8 major industrial regions of India

1. Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region

2. Hugli Industrial Region.

3. Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Industrial Region

4. Gujarat Industrial Region

5. Chotanagpur Industrial Region

6. Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Industrial Region

7. Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Industrial Region

8. Kolfam-Thiruvananthapuram Industrial Region.


1. Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region:

This region extends from Thane to Pune and in adjoining districts of Nashik and Solapur. Iwn at a rapid pace in Kolaba, Ahmednagar, Satara, Sangli and Jalgaon districts also. it started in British India.

 In 1774 the island-site was obtained for construction of Mumbai port. The opening of the first railway track of 34 kms between Mumbai and Thane in 1853, opening of the Bhor and Thai Ghats respectively to Pune and Nashik and that of Suez Canal in 1869 all contributed to the development of Mumbai.

The growth of this industrial region is coincides with the growth of cotton textile industry in India. Coal was situated at a distant location  and  hydroelectric was developed in Western Ghats. Cotton was cultivated in the black cotton soil area of the Narmada and Tapi basins.

2.  Hugli Industrial Region:

Strategically situated in the province of West Bengal, this region is a narrow belt running along the river Hugli for a distance of about 100 km from Bansbaria and Naihati in the north to Birlanagar in the south. Industries have also developed in Midnapur district in the west.  Hugli proved to be the best site for the development of an inland river port as nucleus for the development of Hugli industrial region.

Kolkata,the old trading hub of late 17th century has developed into  a big  industrial centre of today.  Kolkata-Haora jointly forms the nucleus of this region. It is well- connected by the Ganga and its tributaries with the rich hinterland of Ganga-Brahmaputra plains. Besides navigable rivers, roads and the railways provided subsequent links to the great benefit of Kolkata port.

The discovery of coal and iron ore in Chotanagpur plateau, tea plantations in Assam and northern parts of West Bengal and the processing of deltaic Bengal’s jute contributed to the industrial development in this region. As further advantage ,cheap labour could be found easily from the thickly populated states of Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand and eastern part of U.P. Kolkata, as capital city of the British India (1773-1912) attracted large scale British investment of capital.

Establishment of first jute mill at Rishra in 1855 ushered in the era of modem industrial clustering in this region. A chain of jute mills and other factories could be established on either side of Hugli River with the help of Damodar valley coal. The port site was best-suited for export of raw materials to England and import of finished goods .

The role of transport and communication network has been as important as the favourable locational factors in the growth of this region. By 1921, Kolkata-Hugli region was responsible for two-thirds of factory employment in India.

Paper, engineering, textile machinery, electrical, chemical, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers and petrochemical industries have also added to the industrial development of the region. Factory of the Hindustan Motors Limited at Konanagar and diesel engine factory at Chittaranjan are landmarks of this region.

Location of petroleum refinery at Haldia has facilitated the development of a variety of industries. The major centres of this industrial region are Kolkata, Haora, Haldia, Serampur, Rishra, Shibpur, Naihati, Kakinara, Shamnagar, Titagarh, Sodepur, Budge Budge, Birlanagar, Bansbaria, Belgurriah, Triveni, Hugli, Belur, etc.

3. Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Industrial Region:

In  two states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, this region experienced the fastest industrial growth in the post-independence era. Till 1960, industries were confined to Bangalore district of Karnataka and Salem and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu. But now they have spread over all the districts of Tamil Nadu except Viluppuram.

This region is a cotton-growing one and is dominated by the cotton-textile industry. In fact cotton textile industry was the first to take roots in this region. But it has large number of silk-manufacturing units, sugar mills, leather industry, chemicals, rail wagons, diesel engines, radio, light engineering goods, rubber goods, medicines, aluminium, cement, glass, paper, cigarette, match box and machine tools, etc.

This region is away from the main coal-producing areas of the country but cheap hydroelectric power is available from Mettur, Sivasamudram, Papanasam, Pykara and Sharavati dams. Cheap skilled labour and proximity to vast local market as well as good climate have also favoured the concentration of industries in this region.

Coimbatore has grown rapidly mainly owing to its industrial growth based on Pykara power, local cotton, coffee mills, tanneries, oil presses and cement works. Coimbatore is known as Manchester of Tamilnadu because of its large-scale cotton textile industry. The establishment of public sector units at Banglore like Hindustan Aeronautics, Hindustan Machine Tools, Indian Telephone Industry and Bharat Electronics etc. has further sped up the growth of industries in the region.

Madurai is known for its cotton textiles. Visvesvarayya Iron and Steel Works is located at Bhadravati. The other important centres of this region are Sivakasi, Tiruchirapalli, Madukottai, Mettur, Mysore and Mandya. Petroleum refinery at Chennai and Narimanam and iron and steel plant at Salem are recent developments.

4. Gujarat Industrial Region:

 This region extends upto Valsad and Surat in the south and Jamnagar in the west. The region corresponds to the cotton growing tracts of the Gujarat plains and the development of this region is associated with the location of textile industry since 1860s.

Ahmedabad is near the sources of raw material as well as the marketing centres of the Ganga and Satlui plains. Availability of cheap land, cheap skilled labour and other advantages helped the cotton textile industry to develop.

The discovery and production of oil at a number of places in the Gulf of Khambhat area led to the establishment of petrochemical industries around Ankleshwar, Vadodara and Jamnagar. Petroleum refineries at Koyali and Jamnagar provide necessary raw materials for the proper growth of petrochemical industries.

The Kandla port, developed after independence, provides the basic infrastructure for imports and exports and helps in rapid growth of industries in this region. The region can now boast of diversified industries.

Besides textiles (cotton, silk and synthetic fibres) and petrochemical industries, other industries are heavy and basic chemicals, dyes, pesticides, engineering, diesel engines, textile machinery, pharmaceuticads, dairy products and food processing. The main industrial centres of this region are Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Bharuch, Koyali, Anand, Khera, Surendranagar, Surat, Jamnagar, Rajkot and Valsad.

5. Chotanagpur Industrial Region:

This region is located on the Chotanagpur plateau and extends over Jharkhand, Northern Orissa and Western part of West Bengal. The growth of the region is linked with the discovery of coal in Damodar Valley and iron ore in the Jharkhand-Orissa mineral belt. As both are found in close proximity, the region is known as the ‘Ruhr of India’.

Besides raw materials, power is available from the dam sites in the Damodar Valley and the thermal power stations based on the local coal. This region is surrounded by highly populated states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal which provide cheap labour.

The Kolkata region provides a large market for the goods produced in the Chotanagpur region. It also provides the port facility to the region. It has the advantages for developing ferrous metal industries. The Tata Iron and Steel Company at Jamshedpur, Indian Iron Steel Co., at Bumpur-Kulti, Hindustan Steel Limited at Durgapur, Rourkela and Bokaro are the important steel plants located in this region.

Heavy engineering, machine tools, fertilizers, cement, paper, locomotives and heavy electricals are some of the other important industries in this region. Important nodal centres of this region are Ranchi, Dhanbad, Chaibasa, Sindri, Hazaribagh, Jamshedpur, Daltonganj, Garwa and Japla.

6. Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Industrial Region:

The region extends from Vishakhapatnam district in the north-eastern part of Andhra Pradesh to Kurnool and Prakasham districts in the south-east and covers most of the coastal Andhra Pradesh. The industrial development of this region mainly depends upon Vishakhapatnam and Machilipatnam ports.

Developed agriculture and rich mineral resources in the hinterlands of these ports provide solid base to the industrial growth in this region. Coal fields of the Godavari basin are good source of energy. Hindustan Shipyard Ltd. set up at Vishakhapatnam, set up in 1941 is the main focus.

Petroleum refinery at Vishakhapatnam facilitated the growth of several petrochemical industries. Vishakhapatnam has the most modern iron and steel plant which have the distinction of being the only plant in India having coastal location. It uses high quality iron ore from Bailadila in Chhattisgarh.

One lead-zinc smelter is functioning in Guntur district. The other industries of this region include sugar, textiles, paper, fertilizers, cement, aluminium and light engineering. The important industrial centres of this region are Vishakhapatnam, Vijaywada, Vijaynagar, Rajahmundry, Kurnool, Elum and Guntur. Recent discovery of natural gas in Krishna- Godavari basin is likely to provide much needed energy and help in accelerated growth of this industrial region.

7. Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Industrial Region:

It is one of the fastest growing regions of India. It consists of two industrial belts adjoining Delhi. One belt extends over Agra-Mathura-Meerut and Saharanpur in U.P. and the other between Faridabad-Gurgaon- Ambala in Haryana.

The region is located far away from the mineral and power resources, and therefore, the industries are light and market oriented. The region gets power fromhydro-electricity from Bhakra-Nangal complex and thermal power from Harduaganj, Faridabad and Panipat.

Sugar, agricultural implements, vanaspati, textile, glass, chemicals, engineering, paper, electronics and cycle are some of the important industries of this region. Software industry is a recent addition, Agra and its environs have glass industry. Mathura has an oil refinery with its petro-chemical complex. One oil refinery has been set up at Panipat also.

 Gurgaon has Maruti car factory as well as one unit of the IDPL. Faridabad has a number of engineering and electronic industries. Ghaziabad is a large-centre of agro­-industries. Saharanpur and Yamunanagar have paper mills. Modinagar, Sonipat, Panipat and Ballabhgarh are other important industrial nodes of this region.

8. Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Industrial Region:

This is a small industrial region and spreads over Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alwaye, Emakulam and Allapuzha districts of south Kerala. The region is located far away from the mineral belt .Due to this distance the industrial scene here is dominated by agricultural products processing and market oriented light industries.

Plantation agriculture and hydroelectricity provide the industrial base to this region. The main industries are textiles, sugar, rubber, match box, glass, chemical fertilizers, food and fish processing, paper, coconut coir products, aluminium and cement. Oil refinery set up in 1966 at Kochi provides solid base to petrochemical industries. Important industrial centres are Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, Alluva, Kochi, Alappuzha and Punalur.

Minor Industrial Regions:

1. Ambala-Amritsar in Haryana-Punjab.

2. Saharanpur-Muzaffamagar-Bijnaur in Uttar Pradesh.

3. Indore-Dewas-Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh.

4. Jaipur-Ajmer in Rajasthan.

5. Kolhapur-South Kannada in Maharashtra-Karnataka.

6. Northern Malabar in Kerala.

7. Middle Malabar in Kerala.

8. Adilabad-Nizamabad in Andhra Pradesh.

9. AllahabadVaranasi-Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh.

10. Bhojpur-Munger in Bihar.

11. Durg-Raipur in Chhattisgarh.

12. Bilaspur-Korba in Chhattisgarh.

13. Brahmaputra Valley in Assam.

Industrial Districts:

1. Kanpur, 2 Hyderabad, 3. Agra, 4. Nagpur, 5 Gwalior, 6. Bhopal, 7. Lucknow, 8. Jalpaiguri, 9. Cuttack, 10. Gorakhpur, 11. Aligarh, 12. Kota, 13. Pumia, 14. Jabalpur, 15. Bareilly.

Source:Articles Library

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Happy Sir Syed Day: Are We Following His Vision?


The Man

Ye mera chaman hai mera chaman, main apne chaman ka bulbul hun
Sar-shaar-e-nigah-e-nargis hun, paa-basta-e-gesu-e-sumbul hun

Jo taaq-e-haram mein roshan hai, wo shama yahan bhi jalti hai
Is dasht ke goshe goshe se, ek joo-e-hayat ubalti hai
Ye dasht-e-junoon deewanon ka, ye bazm-e-wafa parwanon ki
Ye shahr-e-tarab roomanon ka, ye khuld-e-bareen armanon ki
Fitrat ne sikhai hai ham ko, uftaad yahan parwaaz yahan

Gaaye hain wafa


Majaz:An Alumnus and a Legendary Poet who created the Legandary AMU Tarna

ke geet yahan, chheda hai junoon ka saaz yahan
Ye mera chaman hai mera chaman, main apne chaman ka bulbul hun
Is bazm meiN taigheiN khencheen hain, is bazm meiN saghar tode hain
Is bazm meiN aankh bichhai hai, is bazm meiN dil tak jode hain
Har shaam hai shaam-e-Misr yahan, har shab hai shab-e-Sheeraz yahan
Hai saare jahan ka soz yahan aur saare jahan ka saaz yahan
Zarraat ka bosa lene ko, sau baar jhuka aakaash yahan
Khud aankh se ham ne dekhi hai, batil ki shikast-e-faash yahan

Jo abr yahan se uthega, wo saare jahan par barsega
Har joo-e-rawan par barsega, har koh-e-garan par barsega
Har sard-o-saman par barsega, har dasht-o-daman par barsega
Khud apne chaman par barsega, ghairon ke chaman par barsega
Har shahr-e-tarab par garjega, har qasr-e-tarab par kadkega

Ye abr hamesha barsa hai, ye abr hamesha barsega
Ye abr hamesha barsa hai, ye abr hamesha barsega
Ye abr hamesha barsa hai, ye abr hamesha barsega
Barsegaa, Barsegaa, Barsegaaa…
~ Majaz Lakhnawi

To download AMU Tarana click here.



The Mission

AMU tarana always inspires me. It gives goosebumps to me.But the same tarana raises some questions in me. Are we up to the mark for these words? Are we striving for the same degree of excellence? Have we achieved the ‘Inferadiyat‘ strived for?

The mission has evolved in a grand and beautiful university. In the physical sense the mission is fulfilled, but are we following his vision as well? I am quoting some statements from Sir Syed. I call upon all the ALIGS to introspect and to search for the answer from within.

Sons and Daughters (of MAO college later AMU)) shall go forth throughout the length and breath of the land to preach the message of free inquiry, of large hearted toleration and of pure morality”

“Acquisition knowledge of science and technology is the only solution for the problems of Muslims.”

“We will remain humiliated and rejected if we do not make progress’’ (in scientific field)

“Get rid of old and useless rituals. These rituals hinder human progress.”

“Superstition cannot be the part of Iman (faith).”

“The first requisite for the progress of a nation is the brotherhood and unity amongst sections of the society”.

“Yes the main purpose of this college (MAO) is to impart modern education to Muslims who are suffering because of lack of it but this institution is for all, Hindus and Muslims alike. Both of them need education.”

 “We (Hindus and Muslims) eat the same crop, drink water from the same rivers and breath the same air. As a matter of fact Hindus and Muslims are the two eyes of the beautiful bride that is Hindustan. Weakness of any one of them will spoil the beauty of the bride (dulhan)”.

“We (Hindus and Muslim) have evolved a new language Urdu”.

“I wish that youth of India should follow the example of young men and women of England who are religiously engaged in the hard work of industrial development of their country” (During the stay of Sir Syed in England).

“Look forward, learn modern knowledge, do not waste time in studies of old subjects of no value.”

“Ijtihad (innovation, re-interpretation with the changing times) is the need of the hour. Give up taqlid “(copying and following old values).

“Do not show the face of Islam to others; instead show your face as the follower of true Islam representing character, knowledge, tolerance and piety.”

“We should not (by remaining ignorant and illiterate) tarnish the image of our able elders”.

“All human beings are our brother and sisters. Working for their welfare is obligatory for Muslims.”

“Remember that the words Hindu and Muslim are only meant for religious distinction: otherwise all persons who reside in this country belong to one and the same nation.”

And Some More Questions:

Afzal Usmani Bhai has raised some questions. I was thinking on same line but he presented the spirit beautifully so , I am reproducing with his permission.

  1. Do we really care about Sir Syed and his mission ?

2. If we care, do we really know what was his mission ?

3. If we know what are we doing to fulfill his mission ?

4. Are we really trying to fulfill his mission or promoting our self under the pretext of promoting Sir Syed Mission ?

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Why it’s urgent to respond to India’s vital signs

By Rajiv Khosla & R S Bawa A June 2016 report by the World Bank, showed a decrease in the global growth forecasts from 2.9% to 2.4%. If forecasts are made today, the growth projections will see a further dip. This is due to – The predicament in the US Fed Reserve’s interest rate fixation, after…

via Why it’s urgent to respond to India’s vital signs — The Indian Economist

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