Bay: A Large body of Water

The bay at San Sebastián, Spain

A bay is a large body of water connected to an ocean or sea formed by an inlet of land due to the surrounding land blocking some waves and often reducing winds. Bays also exist in in-land environments as an inlet to any larger body of water, such as a lake or pond, or the estuary of a river, such as those found in and around the Great Lakes of North America, or in the estuary of the Parramatta River in Australia. A large bay may be called a gulf, a sea, a sound, or a bight. A cove is a circular or oval coastal inlet with a narrow entrance; some coves may be referred to as bays. A fjord is a particularly steep bay shaped by glacial activity.

Bays remained significant in the history of human settlement because they can provide a safe place for fishing. Later they were important in the development of sea trade as the safe anchorage they provide encouraged their selection as ports. Any bay may contain fish and other sea creatures or be adjacent to other bays. For example, James Bay is adjacent to Hudson Bay. Large bays, such as the Bay of Bengal and the Hudson Bay, have varied marine geology.

Formation of Bay

There are various ways that bays can be created. The largest bays have developed as a result of continental drift. As the super-continent Gondwana broke up along curved and indented fault lines, the continents moved apart and the world’s largest bays formed. These include the Gulf of Guinea, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Bengal which is the largest bay in the world.

Another way bays are formed is via glacial and river erosion. If formed by glaciers a bay is known as a fjord. Rias are created by rivers and are characterised by more gradual slopes. Most gulf and bays are formed by the folding of the earth’s crust as well as coastal erosion due to waves and currents. Currents can make waves more constant, while soft rocks will allow erosion to have a stronger effect. Any hard rock is eroded less quickly, leaving headlands. The Gulf of California is an example of a bay created by the geological process of folding.

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Don’t Be Afraid

Orlando Espinosa

Don’t be afraid of moving forward, be afraid of standing still!

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Shadow Syllabus

Sonya Huber

  1. IMG_3738I’ll tell you exactly how to get an A, but you’ll have a hard time hearing me.
  2. I could hardly hear my own professors when I was in college over the din and roar of my own fear.
  3. Those who aim for A’s don’t get as many A’s as those who abandon the quest for A’s and seek knowledge or at least curiosity.
  4. I had bookmarked a citation for that fact, and now I can’t find it anywhere.
  5. The only way to seek knowledge is to open your hands and let your opinions drop, but that requires even more fear.
  6. The goals and outcomes I am required to put on my syllabus make me depressed; they are the illusion of controlling what cannot be controlled.
  7. I end up changing everything halfway through the semester anyway because the plan on paper is never what the living class ends up being about.

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“Hole in the wall”- Cognitive Learning. 

Y S Wani



Sugata Mitra is Professor of Educational Technology at the School of Education, Communication and Language Sciences at Newcastle University, England. He is best known for his “Hole in the Wall” experiment, and widely cited in works on literacy and education. He is the Chief Scientist, Emeritus; at the for-profit training company NIIT. Sugata Mitra stated the concept of the “Hole in the wall” theory and later “school in the cloud”.

The School in the cloud is a platform launched in 2014 TED conference to help the educators – be it a teacher, parent, guide to accelerate their own SOLEs. A SOLE is a self-organized learning environment, which is facilitated with a computer, internet connection and the students who will meddle with it, and learn by their own. SOLE sessions are characterized by discovery, sharing and limited or minimal intervention of a teacher or a guide.
In 1999, the…

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