Housing and its Impact on Health

It is too simplistic to see housing as merely a physical dwelling in which one resides. The World Health Organization (WHO) (Bonnefoy, 2007) defines housing as being based on four interlinked levels, with an array of possible health effects in each:

  • the physical structure, including factors such as mould growth, quality, design, and noise exposure;
  • the meaning of “home” as a protective, safe and intimate refuge where one develops a sense of identity and attachment;
  • the immediate housing environment, including the quality of urban design (e.g., public services, playgrounds, green space, parks, places to socialise); and
  • the community, that is, the quality of the neighbourhood and its relation to social cohesion, sense of trust and collective efficacy.

Shaw (2004) categorises these levels in a model that indicates how housing affects health, through direct and indirect, hard and soft ways (see Figure 1). This paper mainly concentrates on the direct, “soft” ways in which housing can influence health, that is, the effects of poor housing; insecurity and debt; and housing as a component of general wellbeing, ontological security3 and social status perception. Each of these issues is addressed in the following sections.

Figure 1: Direct and indirect (hard and soft) ways in which housing can affect health

Direct and indirect (hard and soft) ways in which housing can affect health - as described in text

Reproduced with permission from Shaw (2004)

Poor quality housing/housing conditions

In his review of the relationship between the built environment and mental health, Evans (2003) notes that house type (e.g., high-rise), floor level, and housing quality (e.g., structural problems) have all been linked to mental health. Studies on house type have suggested that high-rise, multi-dwelling units are detrimental to psychological wellbeing, particularly that of mothers with young children and possibly the children themselves (Evans, Wells, & Moch, 2003). This may be due to social isolation, a lack of access to play spaces that promote social interaction, the stigmatisation of high-rise living, or a combination of these. Evans, Wells and Moch’s (2003) review of 27 studies suggests that overall housing quality4 is positively correlated with psychological wellbeing, although issues that may affect this relationship include identity/self-esteem, anxiety about structural hazards or a fear of crime.

Evans (2003) provides some explanations for the possible link between issues with housing quality and mental health, including insecurity/tenure concerns, difficulties with repairs and landlords, frequent relocations, less controllable social interactions, and stigma associated with poor housing. There is some evidence to suggest that when people move to better quality housing, mental health can improve (AHURI, 2005; Evans, Wells, Chan, & Saltzman, 2000; Wells & Harris, 2007), with Evans, Wells, Chan, & Saltzman (2000) finding that the degree of improvement in housing predicted the level of change in psychological distress.

One large-scale, cross-sectional, European housing and health study by the World Health Organization has indicated a relationship between depression/anxiety and living in a dwelling that: has insufficient protection against external aggressions, e.g., cold, draughts, noise; has little space for solitude or freedom; lacks light and/or an external view; does not facilitate socialisation; and is prone to vandalism. Low socioeconomic status, fear of losing dwelling, an inability to move due to financial constraints, and a bad image of the neighbourhood also contributed to anxiety and depression (Bonnefoy et al., 2004).




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Various Impacts of Tourism

The impacts of tourism can be sorted into seven general categories:

  1. Economic
  2. Environmental
  3. Social and cultural
  4. Crowding and congestion
  5. Services
  6. Taxes
  7. Community attitude


Each category includes positive and negative impacts. Not all impacts are applicable to every community because conditions or resources differ. Community and tourism leaders must balance an array of impacts that may either improve or negatively affect communities and their residents. Leaders must be sensitive and visionary, and must avoid the temptation of glossing over certain difficulties tourism development creates. Tourism leaders must also balance the opportunities and concerns of all community sectors by working against conditions where positive impacts benefit one part of the community (geographic or social) and negative impacts hurt another. Conversely, community sensitivity to tourism means avoiding undue burdens on the industry that could thwart its success. Local leaders should not expect tourism to solve all community problems. Tourism is just one element of a community. While creative strategic development of tourism amenities and services can enhance the community or correct local deficiencies, tourism, like all business development, must assure that its products (attractions and services) attract customers. Overbearing rules and restrictions, and overburdening taxes can make tourism businesses less attractive or competitive.

Understanding Tourism Conflicts

Different groups are often concerned about different tourism impacts. To generalize, where one group embraces the e c o n o m i c impacts of tourism, another group experiences social and cultural i m p a c t s , while another is affected by tourism’s e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts. In theory, the interests of each group could be completely separate.For example, Group A could include the business community and people who are in need of the jobs offered by tourism. Group B might include residents who feel displaced by an influx of visitors. Group C could be local outdoor enthusiasts concerned about changes in natural resources. In such a case, each group would have completely different outlooks on tourism. Ideally, all groups could be positively affected and would support the community’s tourism efforts. However, when group interests are divergent, differing perspectives can make consensus on tourism development difficult. In most cases, groups with interests in one area of tourism will also have interests or concerns about other tourism impacts as diagramed in Figure 1b. In these situations, there are common areas of interest and a greater likelihood that each group will show more appreciation for the concerns of the other groups. Finding commonality provides a starting point for resolving tourism issues.

 Economic impacts

usually seen as positive, contributing to employment, better services, and social stability. Also it may improve in terms of cultural education which one may have not considered. Yet these impacts can also contribute to high living costs within the community, pushing local business out of the areas, and raising costs for locals .

Environmental impacts

Impacts that affect the carrying capacity of the area, vegetation, air quality, bodies of water, the water table, wildlife, and natural phenomena.

Social and Cultural 

Associated with interactions between peoples and culture background, attitudes and behaviors, and their relationships to material goods. The introduction of tourists to sensitive areas can be detrimental, cause a loss of culture, or, alternatively, contribute to the preservation of culture and cultural sites through increased resources. Relationship between culture and tourism is a strong one.The widespread cultural, economic and social benefits lead to at policies promoting linking culture and tourism or the narrower development of “cultural tourism”  worldwide at continental, national and regional levels. In Europe,  the European Commission promotes cultural tourism as a means of underpinning the “unity in diversity” of the EU population.

Community Attitude

Visitor interest and satisfaction in the community is a source of local pride. Seeing visitor interest makes localresidents more appreciative of local resources that are often taken for granted. As tourism develops, local residents will enjoy more facilities and a greater range of choices. Tourism activities and events tend to make living in a place more interesting and exciting.

However,tension between residents and tourists can occur. People will often feel stressed over the new, increasingly hectic community and personal pace of life. They may claim the result is no better than before or perhaps even worse. Where culture is part of the tourist attractions, over-amplification of cultural traits and creation of “new” cultural traits to satisfy tourist tastes may create a phony culture.







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Things to Remember for Multilingual Document Translation

Guest Post by John Dave

Multilingual document translation is not just an exchange of one word for its equivalent in other languages. It is more complicated than that and needs reading up on translation tips to smooth the process. Translators must understand languages, criticism, double meanings, and more to translate with accuracy and cultural sensibility. And while translation mistakes can be funny, they can also be offensive, causing serious damage to a company’s image.

When you send your documents off for multilingual translation, you’d prefer to get them back quickly and without breaking your budget. Here are eight multilingual document translation tips which every translator and translation agency need to remember to simplify the translation process.


  1. Keep it short

Our first translation tip is to keep your text short. The advice is that the shorter the text, the less the possibilities are to make a confusion or to deceive the translator. Your aim should be writing sentences that are 20 words or less. If you can reduce some words out of your sentence without altering its meaning, then these words are worthless. Following translation tips like removing useless flab out of your translation will work well for your translation project.

When preferring text for a short but informative, one has to remember that it is not about confining only, but also about the ideal selection.

Several online resources and applications are useful in this situation. The application describes which sentences are difficult to read and which ones are complicated to work. So eliminating some of them or dividing them into different parts can be the perfect solution. It will increase the overall readability level of your text and assure that all your ideas are understood the right way.

  1. Create a style model

Creating a style model for your documents needs work. But all of that work will pay well, with a seamless and effective document translation process. A style model keeps your translated multilingual documents consistent and lessens the amount of time-consuming guesswork needed of your translators. With a style model, the translation team has the supplies they need to get the translation correct the first time. That implies less time and money consumed on rework, and faster translation times at a lower cost for you.

  1. Be consistent

Despite all of the promotion of machine translation, the best, most reliable come from human translators. There’s no need to translate the same expressions from scratch over and over again, every time you translate a new document. Translation memory tools can assist you in avoiding spending full price for translating the same material frequently.

To make the most of the technology, be consistent in your language wherever possible when you address the original document. The more you can use the same terms and expressions for the same thoughts each time, the less “new” text there will be to translate.

This not only assists you to maintain consistency, but it also speeds up the translation process and can keep translation costs down by leveraging repetitions or fuzzy matches, i.e., sentences that are more than 60% but less than 100% the equivalent.

  1. Use simple grammar forms

When it comes to picking active or passive voice forms, always opt for the active. It is more precise and easier to understand. Make sure that the subject acts rather than having the action being executed on it.

To make sure that the content is not loaded with Passive Voice, copy the text and insert it into any grammar app. The app highlights all the passive voice with color and even offers many facts that don’t control the overall readability of the text. Translation tips like avoiding the passive will guarantee the best results.

  1. Avoid humor

If you’re working on a document that is going to be translated, it assists in keeping the language as simple as possible. If you can, avoid complex judgments, slang, regionalisms, and even humor.

This particular point won’t work for every document. Sometimes, as with legal documents, difficulty and industry-specific lingo come with the area. And marketing texts may depend on pun and humor. No worries- professional translators can ensure your translated documents leave your audience smiling for the right causes.

  1. Don’t rely on machine translation

Speed and price are required, sure, but they aren’t everything. When it comes to multilingual documents translation, remember: price is what you pay, and value is what you receive. Some believe that free machine translation is relatively close to the similar quality of a professional translator. When most people experiment with, Google Translate, they realize that machines often fail to achieve the nuance and context of languages. It usually gets the basic idea across, but with garbled and clumsy sentences. And, sometimes, the basic idea does not come across at all.

If you’re using free tools to translate your essential documents, possibilities are you’re not getting enough in the way of value. And you’re risking reader mixing, damage to your business, and possibly legal outcomes as well.

  1. Proofreading

After translating the document make the proofreading to make sure that the translated document is perfect. Checking for punctuation missing, grammatical mistakes, abbreviation, acronym. Proofreading helps to ensure or verify the text is correct and move on to the next steps. The context, terminology, and facts are irrelevant here, as the job focuses on the correctness of the text. Proofreading plays a significant role in document translation.

  1. Choose the right translation partner

The professional translation agencies have both the knowledge that comes from practice and a respect for quality and customer service. They will hire expert translators when required and have in-house design services to assure your documents look as correct and reliable in the target language as they do in the source language. Working with a professional translation agency will increase the level of your translation quality since they have a professional editor review your translations.

Once these documents translation points are taken into account, multilingual document translation will no longer be a problem.

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Aspect of Map Projection

The aspect describes the mutual position of the axis of the earth and the axis of the projection.

Earth and axes

The axis of the earth (black) and the axis of a projection with transverse aspect (red)

Axis of a Projection

The axis of the earth joins the north pole with the south pole. With any map projection one can associate an axis which joins a distinguished point of the globe with its antipodal point.

Normal Aspect

Normal aspect means that the two axes coincide.

For example, under conical and azimuthal projections the north pole will always be displayed in the centre of the map. On the other hand, cylindrical and pseudo-cylindrical projections display another point in the centre of the map, namely the point (0° E, 0° N), i. e., the point where the meridian of Greenwich meets the equator.

Transverse Aspect

Here the axis of the projection belongs to the plane of the equator.

In all our maps the point off the African coast with geographical coordinates (0° E, 0° N) takes over the role of the north pole.


Aspects of our map projections

Oblique Aspect

If the axis of the projection is neither normal nor transverse then one speaks of an oblique aspect.

Our series of pictures are based on axes through one of the following cities:

  • Vienna (16°E, 48°N), Austria
  • Kathmandu (85°E, 28°N), Nepal
  • Dili (126°E, 9°S), Timor-Leste
  • Regina (105°W, 50°N), Saskatchewan, Canada
  • Stanley (60°W, 52°S), Falkland Islands

Other Settings


This will rotate the globe about the axis of projection by 0°, 90°, 180° or 270° before it is displayed. The effect is a change of the image, which depends on the chosen projection.


  • Standard: A part of the globe (e. g. a hemisphere) is displayed.
  • Wide: The entire globe is displayed or, if this is impossible, at least a wide part thereof.

For some projections there will be no difference between the two pictures, because both of them display the entire earth.

Source(s) and Link(s): DGGS


Choosing Map Projection

Mercator’s Projection

Classes of Map Projection

Latitude and Longitude

Zenith and Nadir

Right Ascension


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