Massive Scale of Discovery In Remaining Forests Inspires, Raising The Stakes For Conservation

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Relationship Between Culture and Tourism is Increasing

 Tourism and culture were viewed as largely separate aspects  earlier. Cultural resources were seen as part of the cultural heritage of destinations, related to the education of the local population and the underpinning of local or national cultural identities. Tourism, on the other hand, was largely viewed as a leisure-related activity separate from everyday life and the culture of the local population. This gradually changed towards the end of the century, as the role of cultural attractions in motivating tourists and distinguishing destinations from one another become more obvious. The growing articulation between culture and tourism was stimulated by a number of factors.

Increased interest in culture, particularly as a source of identity and differentiation in the face of globalization worked as a motivation. Growing levels of cultural capital, stimulated by rising education levels also helped the process. Aging populations in developed regions having enough wealth and time also increased the demand.  A desire for direct forms of experience (“life seeing” rather than sightseeing) was developed in later years of 20th century also augmented cultural tourism.   Increased mobility in our times creating easier access to other cultures increased tourism.

 Cultural tourism was seen as a growth market and “quality” tourism and an increasing supply of culture as a result of regional development helped the tourism industry. Growing accessibility of information on culture and tourism through new technologies further increased the demand. The emergence of new nations and regions eager to establish a distinct identity e.g. the impact of newly-independent states in Central and Eastern Europe created new curiosities.

Culture has been increasingly employed as an aspect of the tourism product and destination imaging strategies, and tourism has been integrated into cultural development strategies as a means of supporting cultural heritage and cultural production. This synergy between tourism and culture is seen as one of the most important reasons for encouraging a more direct relationship between these two elements. This relationship is even more significant, given the growing importance of both tourism and culture for economies around the globe. According to OECD , international tourism accounts for approximately 30% of global service exports in 2006 (OECD 2008). Culture and creativity are increasingly being recognised as important economic drivers. An OECD study on the economic importance of culture indicated that in several major economies, the value of the cultural industries was between 3% and 6% of the total economy .

The widespread cultural, economic and social benefits lead to at policies promoting linking culture and tourism or the narrower development of “cultural tourism”  worldwide at continental, national and regional levels. In Europe,  the European Commission promotes cultural tourism as a means of underpinning the “unity in diversity” of the EU population. Travelling to experience the culture of others allows tourists and hosts to appreciate cultural difference as well as underlying cultural ties. In Australia and Canada, culture and tourism have been linked to the development of economic opportunities for indigenous peoples. In Africa , Latin America and Asia, cultural tourism is often seen as a means of supporting heritage conservation as well as raising local incomes (Richards, 2007). The widespread cultural, economic and social benefits mean that policies promoting linking culture and tourism or the narrower development of “cultural tourism” have become evident worldwide at continental, national and regional levels. In Europe, for example, the European Commission promotes cultural tourism as a means of underpinning the “unity in diversity” of the EU population. Travelling to experience the culture of others allows tourists and hosts to appreciate cultural difference as well as underlying cultural ties. In Australia and Canada, culture and tourism have been linked to the development of economic opportunities for indigenous peoples. In Africa, Latin America and Asia, cultural tourism is often seen as a means of supporting heritage conservation as well as raising local incomes.

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Types of Tourism : An Overview

Traveling is one effective way to see the world, experience new cultures and meet new people at the same time. For many tourists, however, traveling accomplishes many other purposes that don’t even have anything to do with the joy of visiting a new place. This is why there are many different types of tourism that explain why tourists choose a particular destination and the things that they expect to do when they are there.

Recreational Tourism

Tourism is an often activity for recreational purpose. Most tourism took for a change and rest; this is the reason why package tours have become so popular.Perhaps the most common type of tourism is what most people associate with traveling. This is when people go to a place that is very different from their regular day-to-day life to relax and have fun. Beaches, theme parks and camp grounds are often the most common places frequented by recreational tourists.

Nature Tourism
For tourists who want to see wildlife or bask in the joy of just being in the midst of nature, nature tourism is the answer. Ecotourism and nature treks are all part of this kind of tourism. Bird watching, for example, is one activity that nature tourists are fond of doing. What marks this kind of tourism is that it is environmentally responsible, has low impact and advantageous to the local community.

Religious tourism is another type of tourism where people go to a religious location or locations to follow the footsteps of their founder or to attend a religious ceremony. Catholics, for example, go on pilgrimages in the Holy Land to experience the paths where Jesus walked.India represents multi-religious composition of population. Various package tours are organized to enable people to attend the religious duties and visit places of religious importance. E.g. Char Dham yatra.Medical or health tourism is a relatively new type of tourist activity where the main focus of the travel is improving one’s health, physical appearance or fitness. For instance, certain countries promote the expertise of their doctors and surgeons in the field of cosmetic surgery and invite foreigners to have their liposuction, facelift, nose lift and other forms of cosmetic procedures to be done there. Medical tourism also incorporates aspects of recreation tourism where the patient goes to a relaxing getaway to recover from the procedure.

 Environmental Tourism

Rich and affluent tourist are preferred to spend more visits to remote places where they get pollution free airs to breath.

 Historical Tourism

Tourist is interested to know how our forefather lived and administered in a particular area. They visit heritage locations, temples, churches, museums, forts etc.

Ethnic Tourism

This refers to people traveling to distance places looking to their routes and attending to family obligations. Marriage and death bring people together to their native places. Persons who are settled overseas during later part of life visit place of their birth for giving boost to ethnic tourism.

Cultural Tourism

Some people are interested to know how other people or communities stay, survive and prosper. The kind of culture they practice their art and music is different from ours. So in order to acquire knowledge, understands culture well, to become familiar with the culture, they undertake journey.If the objective of one’s visit to a particular place is to get to know its history and culture then this type of tourism is known as cultural tourism. Tourists may visit different landmarks of a particular country or they may simply opt to focus on just one area. They may also attend festivals and ceremonies in order to gain a better understanding of the people, their beliefs and their practices.If the objective of one’s visit to a particular place is to get to know its history and culture then this type of tourism is known as cultural tourism. Tourists may visit different landmarks of a particular country or they may simply opt to focus on just one area. They may also attend festivals and ceremonies in order to gain a better understanding of the people, their beliefs and their practices.

 Adventure Tourism

There is a trend among the youth to take adventure tour. They go for trekking,
rock climbing, river rafting etc. They organized camp fire and stay under the blue sky. This tourism is meant for people with strong nerves who can tolerate stress.

Health Tourism

In recent years, health tourism has become highly popular. People visit nature cure centers and hospitals providing specialist treatment. Many foreigners visit India for treatment because similar services in their country are costly. It is a relatively new type of tourist activity where the main focus of the travel is improving one’s health, physical appearance or fitness. For instance, certain countries promote the expertise of their doctors and surgeons in the field of cosmetic surgery and invite foreigners to have their liposuction, facelift, nose lift and other forms of cosmetic procedures to be done there. Medical tourism also incorporates aspects of recreation tourism where the patient goes to a relaxing getaway to recover from the procedure.

 Music Tourism

It can be part of pleasure tourism as it includes moment of people to sing and listen music and enjoy it.

Village Tourism

It involves traveling and arranging tours in order to popularize various village destinations.

Wild life Tourism

It can be an Eco and animal friendly tourism. Wild life tourism means watching wild animals in their natural habitat.

Adventure tourism is another type of tourism that is catered for those who want to do more than just visit regular tourist sites. These kinds of trips involve challenging activities like rock climbing, mountain climbing and wild water rafting.

Sports  and Pleasure Tourism

Many people today are stressed out in the corporate rat race and in need of rejuvenation. Thus, they go on trips that refresh their souls and spirits. This is called pleasure tourism and usually includes yoga workshops and detox vacations, among others. Others, however, de-stress by engaging in a particular sport. Called sports tourism, travelers here target places which are known for a particular sporting facility. Skiing, for example, is a type of sports tourism. Also included in this category are those who go to a destination to experience a sports spectacle such as the Olympics, FIFA World Cup and others.

There are no strict delineations when tourists go on their trips. These kinds of tourism often overlap so it’s not unusual for travelers to experience more than one type of tourism in one vacation.

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Internal and External Motivating Factors of Tourism

Motivation of the tourists comes from  human psychology. It is the satisfaction-forming factor. The factors of motivation can be categorized in internal and external factors.

Internal Factors

Internal factors arouse, direct, and integrate a person’s behavior and influence his decisions for travelling.

  • Intrinsic Motivation − For many people, tourism is a way of satisfying their psychological needs such as travelling, performing leisure activities, exploring novelty and capabilities, self-expression and self-assurance, creativity, competition, need for relaxation, and belongingness. The intrinsic motivations pertain to assuring one’s capabilities on different emotional fronts. Intrinsic motivation drives the tourists to opt for tourism for intangible rewards such as fun, assurance, and other emotional needs. The other intrinsic factors of motivation are
    • Attitudes of Tourist − Knowledge of a person, place, or object + Positive or negative feelings about the same.
    • Tourist’s Perception − By observing, listening, or getting knowledge, a tourist forms the perception about a place, person, or an object.
    • Values or Beliefs − A tourist believes or values a specific mode of conduct which is acceptable personally or socially.
    • Personality of the Tourist − The nature and physique of a tourist plays an important role towards motivation in tourism.

External Factors

There are external motives in tourism that can influence tourists and pull them to a certain motivation and subsequent decision.

  • Extrinsic Motivation − Here, a tourist gets motivated by external factors such as money and the need to feel competent on the scale of expenditure and performance.
  • Place of Origin − The grooming of the tourist depends upon the place of its origin. For example, for the Indian married women, the tourism might come last in the list of preferential things they wish to do whereas for American ladies, tourism would acquire much higher rank.
  • Family and Age − The family matters when it comes to the structure and the income. Today, the families with nuclear structure and double income tend to opt for long distance, extravagant tourism more than joint families or families with single earning member who are interested in visiting domestic places. The tourists also have different preferences of places according to their age. For example, tourists in the age group of 5 to 45 years might enjoy visiting destination in the USA such as Disneyland more than the senior citizens.
  • Culture or Social Class − Tourists of different cultures prefer different places, events, and different types of tourism. In addition, if friends and families who have visited a place earlier spread the first hand information that motivates the others to visit the place too.
  • Market − Ever-changing market variables alter tourism. Changes in value of currency, political situations, and economic well-being of the country influence the decisions of a tourist.

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