Happy Sir Syed Day Aligs : Complete Nazm of Majaz Titled “nazr-e-aligarh”- Abridged and Adopted as AMU Tarana

This is the complete nazm of majaz titled “nazr-e-aligarh” written in 1936. it was later abridged and adopted as the lyrics of AMU tarana.
ye mera chaman hai mera chaman, main apne chaman ka bulbul hun
sarshaar-e-nigaah-e-nargis hun, paa-bastaa-e-gesu-e-sumbul hun

(chaman : garden; bulbul : nightingale; sarshaar : overflowing, soaked; nigaah : sight; nargis :flower, narcissus; paa-bastaa : embedded; gesuu : tresses; sumbul : a plant of sweet odor)


har aan yahan sehbaa-e-kuhan ek saaghar-e-nau men dhalti hai

kalion se husn tapaktaa hai, phoolon se javaani ubalti hai

(sehbaa-e-kuhan : old wine; saaghar-e-nau : new goblet)

jo taaq-e-haram men roshan hai, vo shamaa yahaan bhi jalti hai

is dasht ke goshe-goshe se, ek joo-e-hayaat ubalti hai

(taaq-e-haram : vault in the sacred territory of mecca; roshan : glowing; shamaa : flame; dasht : wilderness, desert; goshaa : corner; juu-e-hayaat : stream of life)


islam ke is but-khaane men asnaam bhi hain aur aazaar bhi

tahzib ke is mai-khaane men shamshir bhi hai aur saaghar bhi

(but-khaanaa : temple; asnaam : idols; aazaar : abraham’s father, an idol-worshipper; tahziib : culture; shamshiir : sword; saaghar : wine goblet)


yaan husn ki barq chamakti hai, yaan noor ki baarish hoti hai

har aah yahaan ek naghmaa hai, har ashk yahaan ek moti hai

(barq : lightening; nuur : light)


har shaam hai shaam-e-misr yahaan, har shab hai shab-e-sheeraz yahaan

hai saare jahaan ka soz yahaan aur saare jahaan kaa saaz yahaan

(shaam-e-misr : evenings of egpyt; shab-e-sheeraz : nights of sheeraz, a famous city of iran; soz : pain)


ye dasht-e-junun deevanon kaa, ye bazm-e-vafa parvaanon ki
ye shahr-e-tarab roomaanon kaa, ye khuld-e-bareen armanon ki

(dasht : desert, wilderness; junuun : frenzy; bazm : gathering; vafaa : faithfulness; shahr-e-tarab : city of mirth; khuld-e-bariin : sublime paradise; armaan : hope)
fitrat ne sikhaee hai ham ko, uftaad yahaan parvaaz yahaangaaye hain vafaa ke geet yahaan, chheraa hai junun kaa saaz yahaan

(fitrat : nature; uftaad : beginning of life; parvaaz : flight; saaz : song on an instrument)
is farsh se hamne ud ud kar aflaak ke taare tode hainnaheed se ki hai sargoshi, parveen se rishte jore hain

(farsh : base; aflaak : heavens; nahiid : venus; parviin : 


is bazm men teghen khencheen hain, is bazm men saghar tode hain

is bazm men aankh bichaa’ee hai, is bazm men dil tak jore hain

(tegh : swords; saghar : goblet)


is bazm men neze khenche hain, is bazm men khanjar choome hain
is bazm men gir-gir tadpe hain, is bazm men pee kar jhoome hain

(neze : spears; khanjar : dagger; bazm : gathering)


aa aa kar hazaaron baar yahaan khud aag bhi hamne lagaayee hai
phir saare jahaan ne dekhaa hai ye aag hameen ne bujha’ee haiyaan ham ne kamanden daali hain, yaan hamne shab-khoon maare hain
yaan ham ne qabaayen nochee hain, yaan hamne taaj utaare hain

(kamand : a noose; shab-khoon : night raids; qabaayen : dress)


har aah hai khud taaseer yahaan, har khvaab hai khud taabeer yahaan
tadbeer ke paa-e-sangin per jhuk jaati hai taqdeer yahaan

(aah : sigh; taaeer : effect; taabeer : interpretation; tadbeer : forethought; paa-e-sangiin : firm footing; taqdeer : destiny)


zarraat kaa bosaa lene ko, sau baar jhukaa aakaash yahaan

khud aankh se ham ne dekhi hai, baatil ki shikast-e-faash yahaan

(zarraat : dust; bosaa : kiss; baatil : evil; shikast-e-faash: clear defeat)
is gul-kadah paarinaa men phir aag bharakne vaali hai
phir abr garajne vaale hain, phir barq karakne vaali hai

(gul-kadah : garden; pariinaa : ancient; abr : cloud; barq : lightening)


jo abr yahaan se uththega, vo saare jahaan par barsegaa
har juu-e-ravaan par barsegaa, har koh-e-garaan par barsegaa

(abr : cloud; juu-e-ravaan : flowing streams; koh-e-garaan : big mountains)


har sard-o-saman par barsegaa, har dasht-o-daman par barsegaa
khud apne chaman par barsegaa, ghairon ke chaman par barsegaa

(sard-o-saman : open and shelter; dasht-o-daman : wild and subdued; qasr-e-tarab : citadel of joy)


har shahr-e-tarab par garjegaa, har qasr-e-tarab par kadkegaa

ye abr hameshaa barsaa hai, ye abr hameshaa barsegaa

(shahr-e-tarab : city of joy; qasr-e-tarab : citadel of joy)
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Cross Tabulation in Geographical Research


Cross tabulation is a tool that allows you compare the relationship between two variables.

Defining Cross Tabulation

We can do this by an example:

Suppose that you are hired by the local school  to conduct a survey on attitudes toward environmental education. The district is planning to modify its current environmental education curriculum, but it needs additional data to help determine what to include in the curriculum. Some of the school board members think that environmental education should focus solely on awareness, while others believe that environmental education should be more comprehensive. You create a 3-item survey. The items are:

  1. Do you think that high school students should be provided with awareness only environmental education?
  2. Do you think that high schools should provide more comprehensive environmental education that includes a detailed to do list?
  3. Do you think that receiving environmental education in high school is important?

You decide to give your survey to 250 students, 250 parents and all of the 100 teachers in the school .

You decide to compare the responses of the students, parents and teachers to each other on each of the three items. The best way for you to conduct the comparisons is to use cross tabulation.

So, what is cross tabulation? Cross tabulation is a statistical tool that is used to analyze categorical data. Categorical data is data or variables that are separated into different categories that are mutually exclusive from one another. An example of categorical data is eye color. Your eye color can be divided into ‘categories’ (i.e., blue, brown, green), and it is impossible for eye color to belong to more than one category (i.e., color).

Examples of Cross Tabulation

Cross tabulation helps you understand how two different variables are related to each other. For example, suppose you wanted to see if there is a relationship between the gender of the survey responder and if environmental education in high school is important.

Using the survey data, you can count the number of males and females who said that environmental education is important, and the number of males and females who said that environmental education is not important. You then take this information and create a contingency table, which displays the frequency of each of the variables. Suppose that there are 300 females and 300 males who completed the survey. Here is what our cross tabulation looks like:

Is there a relationship between gender and if environmental   education in high school is important? If you look at the responses, you can see that almost all of the males believe that environmental education in high school is important. Although the majority of females believe that environmental education is important, the difference is not as big as between the males. From this analysis, we can conclude that males are more likely than females to believe that environmental education in high school is important.

Benefits of Using Cross Tabulations in Survey Analysis

When conducting survey analysis, cross tabulations  are a quantitative research method appropriate for analyzing the relationship between two or more variables. Cross tabulations provide a way of analyzing and comparing the results for one or more variables with the results of another (or others). The axes of the table may be specified as being just one variable or formed from a number of variables. The resulting table will have as many rows and columns as there are codes in the corresponding axis specification.

In many research reports, survey results are presented in aggregate only – meaning, the data tables are based on the entire group of survey respondents. Cross tabulations are simply data tables that present the results of the entire group of respondents as well as results from sub-groups of survey respondents. Cross tabulations enable you to examine relationships within the data that might not be readily apparent when analyzing total survey responses.

Watch this video about reading Cross Tabs

Cross Tabulation and Chi-Square

We can use Cross Tabulation and Chi-Square for data that are categorized by one or more categorical variables. With a cross tabulation and chi-square analysis, you can do the following:

  • Determine the counts or percentages for combinations of categories across two or more categorical variables.
  • Investigate the relationship between variables.

A cross tabulation displays the joint frequency of data values based on two or more categorical variables. The joint frequency data can be analyzed with the chi-square statistic to evaluate whether the variables are associated or independent. Cross tabulation analysis is used for two-way tables and is also known as contingency table analysis.










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Bugyals: Enchanting Indian Meadows

Bugyals are alpine pasture lands, or meadows, in higher elevation range between 3,300 metres and 4,000 metres  of the Himalayas in Uttarakhand, India where they are called “nature’s own gardens”. Here the topography  is either flat or sloped. The surface of these bugyals is covered with natural green grass and seasonal flowers. They are used by tribal herdsmen to graze their cattle. During the winter season the alpine meadows remain snow-covered. During summer months, the Bugyals present a riot of beautiful flowers and grass. As bugyals constitute very fragile ecosystems, particular attention needs to be given for their conservation.

Bugyal, when literally translated, means meadow. A Bugyal is high altitude grassland that makes for an excellent grazing ground.

 They are biodiversity hotspots between snowline and treeline.. They preserve many rare varieties of plants and animals. With damage to these Bugyals we are loosing precious germplasm. They are treasures of medicinal plants. Like forests the work as carbon sink. Many rich cultures developed in these Bugyals. Both flora and fauna are rich here. they boast of rare animal species.

Conservation issues

Bugyal is a fragile ecosystem and it is essential to maintain a balance between ecology and environment. In this context a court case was filed by the public objecting to erection of the prefab houses and by introducing non-biodegradable matter in the upper meadows of the bugyals by the tourism departments. It was averred that the peace and tranquility of the bugyals was getting affected. The court had ordered that the polluter must pay for the damage to environment based on absolute liability principle, which covered payment of damages to the affected people but also to compensate for all costs for restoration of the degraded environments.

Overgrazing is  great danger for Bugyals. It should be regulated.


These are often tourist attractions. Religious tourism also flourishes here.Tourist pitch tents and inflict great damage to these meadows.

Global warming has its influence on these meadows.

Here are some of the most beautiful Bugyals in India –

Auli Bugyal


Auli Bugyal in Chamoli district,a highland pasture in the Garhwal Himalaya is known as the “Heaven Terrace”.It lies in an elevation range of 2,500–3,050 metres (8,200–10,010 ft) with ski slopes located at an elevation of 3,048 metres (10,000 ft). On either side of the bugyal there are coniferous, oak and deodhar forests which limits the wind velocity to acceptable 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) for skiing.

Bedni Bugyal

bedni-bugyal-trek1Situated at the border of Garhwal and Kumaon in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, Bedni Bugyal offers the majestic views of the Trishul Parbat. It is situated at an altitude of 11,000 feet. The trek to Bedni starts from Loharjung and is ranked easy on the difficulty level, since one mostly passes through villages to reach this lush meadow. On route to Bedni, Wan is the last village that you cross; it is also the last point where you could get accommodation. Bedni Bugyal is a part of the Roopkund Trek itinerary too. So to witness the verdancy of this meadow, you could either choose the easy trek to Bedni or go further up to Roopkund which is at a height of 15,600 feet.The route to Bedni Bugyal is through exquisitely beautiful forests of rhododendron and oak. It is a perfect campsite and the Bedni Kund offers the most riveting reflection of the Trishul Peak.

Dayara Bugyal 


Dayara Bugyal is a full-fledged 7 days trek that again is rated easy. At an altitude of 12,000 feet, Dayara is easily among the top 2 most beautiful high altitude meadows in the Himalayas. It is breathtakingly serene and looks like the most ideal setting for a fairytale. It can be reached from Haridwar via Barsu, and Barnala meadows are where Dayara begins. It is a moderate 5 kms trek from Barnala to Dayara through dense forests.

Vast stretches of lush green captivate your senses from the word go! The end of the climb gives way to undulating meadows with the Himalayas making for the perfect backdrop. From the top one can get mesmerizing views of the Gangotri I, II, III, Srikanth, Rudregaira, Black Peak and many other unnamed Himalayan peaks. The highest point of the Dayara Bugyal Trek is Bakaria Top that offers 360 degree panoramic views of the Greater Himalayas.

Panwali Bugyals – 

panwali-bugyalLocated between Gangotri and Kedarnath, Panwali Bugyals are at heights ranging from 9,000 feet to 13,000 feet. These refreshing grasslands lie on the old pilgrim trail from Gangotri to Kedarnath and hence can be reached from both the sides. For those taking the Gangotri route the starting point is Mala which is 2 kms from Bhatwari. While traveling from the other side, the starting point is Triyuginarain. The nearest railhead is at Rishikesh from where there is a road travel of 154 kms to Ghuttu.

The arrival of summer dots these Bugyals with a plethora of colors owing to the blooming of flowers and herbs. These Bugyals are a part of the Panwali Kantha Trek.

Here see a great NDTV report about bugyals.

Links and Sources:



NDTV Report



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Global Prospects for a Post-Car World

CityGeographics: urban form, dynamics and sustainability

Earlier this year I worked on some charts and maps for a Greenpeace report authored by sustainable transport academic Robin Hickman, exploring the impacts of automobile dependence and the prospects for a post-car world. The report is online here.

The much debated phenomenon of ‘peak-car’ can be observed in many countries in the global north,  in terms of a levelling off of private car use and increases in public transport, as shown in the graphs below. Many theories have been put forward to explain this trend, from the growth and densification of cities, to economic crises, fuel tax changes, to declining car use by younger demographics, and behavioural changes related to the internet. Given the many negative impacts of automobile dependence, from substantial GHG emissions, to air pollution, millions of road deaths annually, and contributions to the global obesity epidemic, clearly this behavioural trend is a great opportunity…

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