Ethnoburbs: New Faces of Changing Settlement Dynamics

As urbanism is a new way of life in the fast urbanising world, many new settlement systems are emerging.An ethnoburb is such a type.

An ethnoburb is a suburban residential and business area with a notable cluster of a particular ethnic minority population. Although the group may not constitute the majority within the region, it is a significant amount of the population.That can greatly influence the social geography within the area because of cultural and religious traditional values exhibited.

Immigrants still like to settle where immigrants have already settled. Geographers call this chain migration. Once word of the new ethnoburbs got around, they grew fast. Letters, phone calls, and then emails back to the old country, enticed others. Ethnoburbs can be considered product of this tendency.

Ethnoburbs allow for ethnic minority groups to maintain their individual identity, but that may also restrict their ability to fully assimilate into mainstream culture and society.

The term was first coined in 1997 by Dr. Wei Li, then assistant professor of geography and Asian American studies at the University of Connecticut, in a paper examining the suburban Chinese population in Los Angeles.According to Dr. Wei Li, the author of many writings on the subject, the ethnoburb has resulted from “the influence of international geopolitical and global economic restructuring, changing national immigration and trade policies, and local demographic, economic and political contexts.”

Although it is sometime assumed that an ethnoburb is composed of immigrants with a lower economic status, that may not always be the case, as many ethnoburbs are made up of wealthy and high economic status individuals in more expensive neighbourhoods and communities.


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We can’t rely on individuals to fix climate change as We are placing the blame on wrong place

Tegan wrote a great piece here. Sharing it for you all


The other day I saw a tweet that had escaped its platform of birth to become a Facebook meme. I can’t find it, but it said something like:

“Can we all please stop acting like ordinary people are to blame for climate change because we won’t take 5 minute showers and go vegan, and not the corporations that make billions from destroying the planet”.

I think this neatly gets to the crux of something I’ve been thinking about for a while. Individual climate action vs collective climate action. Lifestyle change vs system change.

read here

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Migration and Culture: How they Affect Each Other?

Culture is  the way of life shared by a group of people, including the way they obtain food, the way they raise their children, their values, beliefs, language customs and religion.

Differences in Cultures Include…
Religious beliefs
Celebrations, holidays, and activities
Produce goods and provide services in different ways
Have stories, art, music, and dances to show how they live in their culture

A large reason people migrate is because of religion. In some countries people are persecuted for their religion. For example, in North Korea, being Christian is strictly outlawed.

Language is one of the most important parts of culture. Language is a medium to communicate our thoughts,our ideas.People use language to take power and gain control. A language can tell a lot about a culture such as their values; and you can communicate with lots of different kinds of people with languages.

Independent Cultures
Sometimes cultures want to have their own land separated from the country they are currently in. They want to have their own identity. Lots of Aboriginal groups want their own land to protect their culture. Often times the people who want to separate from the main control are not being allowed certain human rights and/or being restricted from traditions or religion. They feel their culture will be lost without independence.

How Migration Affects Culture

When cultures meet or collide different things can happen. They could learn from each other, they could not agree on certain beliefs or traditions and end up fighting, or one of the cultures could think they are superior and try to force their culture onto the other culture.

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Class  Interaction

Interaction of Social class  and castes is also a factor in affecting the culture on both sides.

Extinction of Cultures 
Culture assimilation is when one culture tries to overpower and take control of another culture. This doesn’t always work out well for anyone. For example, when someone comes to Canada from a different country they don’t always have the credentials to get a job.

Gender Orientation
Back before 1980 most long distance migrants were men. This was because women migrated short distances, mostly within their own country. Women moved mostly for harvest time work, or to work as nannies or house keepers. This has changed. Now a days women migrate more often. When women migrate they mostly find jobs in domestic work, food services, or health care.

Sometimes migrants are mistreated. The governments are doing what they can to prevent migrant workers from inadequate living conditions, unfair and low wages, and sexual abuse because this is what happens to a lot of them.
The amount of migrant workers has increased by 15 million since 2000. The cause of this is there are not enough jobs available in peoples home countries, especially in developing countries. More than 191 million people, or 3 percent of the words population, are working in a country other than their home country.
Cultures didn’t start to affect other cultures until more recently. Japan, South and North Korea, China and Mongolia had Police to keep migrants and foreigners out. This allowed them to stay isolated and out on their own unlike Europe or North and South America. There was also the fact that these counties and Europe and the Americas were very far apart. In order to get to them you’d have to take a very dangerous journey.
Some cultures have been destroyed, overcome, or lost. Others have just been forgotten. Some cultures are more advanced than others so it makes it easy for the stronger cultures to overrun the smaller ones.
Some small sicknesses and illnesses can be deadly for other cultures because they are not immune or used to it. One example is in the Amazonian. The Europeans brought disease there, some as small as the common cold, and since the people had never been exposed to the illnesses thousands died.

Why Do Cultures Change in the First Place?
There are many reasons for culture changes. One example is when a new culture either comes and forces another culture to change, or another culture takes land or resources from another culture, which forces them to find new ways to live.

How Migration Creates Wealth and How Migrants Add to Our Culture
When migrants arrive they need new things, like appliances for example. The more products people buy, the more workers stores will need. Some migrants may start a business, therefor creating jobs. They also increase the number of workers in our country.
When people come to  a country they bring their culture with them. This means we can learn about them, and grow in our knowledge about them. They bring new foods, music, literature, dance and new ideas. This also teaches us to appreciate other ways of life and cultures.
When young people migrate from a small community, like a tribe for example, there are advantages and disadvantages. Advantages are that when the young people move they have a bigger chance for a better future. But a disadvantage is that the culture is losing one of its members. If the community is already small, and mostly consists of elders, the traditions and maybe even the language will be lost.
When people move to other counties they feel safer in counties that are similar to their own. Some people look for similar language, religion, music or history. When one moves to a place completely different he/she can feel out of place and out of your comfort zone.
Within cities there are small groups called enclaves or ethnoburbs. They are small groups from big cultures. Chinatown is an example. It is to be noted here that these terms are not same. Fine differences are there.

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Types of Bar Graph: What is a Bar Graph Used For

What is a Bar Graph Used For

A bar graph (also known as a bar chart or bar diagram) is a visual tool that uses bars to compare data among categories. A bar graph may run horizontally or vertically. The important thing to know is that the longer the bar, the greater its value.

Bar graphs consist of two axes. On a vertical bar graph,  the horizontal axis (or x-axis) shows the data categories. The vertical axis (or y-axis) is the scale. The colored bars are the data series.

Bar graphs have three key attributes:

  • A bar diagram makes it easy to compare sets of data between different groups at a glance.
  • The graph represents categories on one axis and a discrete value in the other. The goal is to show the relationship between the two axes.
  • Bar charts can also show big changes in data over time.

Bar Graph vs Line Graph

Bar graphs display data in a way that is similar to line graphs. Line graphs are useful for displaying smaller changes in a trend over time. Bar graphs are better for comparing larger changes or differences in data among groups.

When to Use a Bar Graph

Bar graphs are an effective way to compare items between different groups. This bar graph shows a comparison of numbers on a quarterly basis over a four-year period of time. Users of this chart can compare the data by quarter on a year-over-year trend, and also see how the annual sales are distributed throughout each year.

Bar graphs are an extremely effective visual to use in presentations and reports. They are popular because they allow the reader to recognize patterns or trends far more easily than looking at a table of numerical data.

Types of a Bar Graph

When presenting data visually, there are several different styles of bar graphs to consider.

Vertical Bar Graph

The most common type of bar graph is the vertical bar graph. It is very useful when presenting a series of data over time. The vertical bar chart below shows a series of quarterly data, categorized by year. The reader can easily see not only the trends of sales over the four-year period, but also how the sales compare during each quarter.

One disadvantage of vertical bar graphs is that they don’t leave much room at the bottom of the chart if long labels are required.

Horizontal Bar Graph

Converting the vertical data to a horizontal bar chart solves this problem. There is plenty of room for the long label along the vertical axis, as shown below.

Stacked Bar Graph

The stacked bar graph is a visual that can convey a lot of information. Look at the stacked bar graph below, and you can see that there are eight data series (world regions) within each category (year).

Trying to show all of these data series in a standard bar chart would be impractical. The stacked bar chart in this example allows us to pick out three important facts:

  • The total population is increasing dramatically over the time period displayed.
  • The largest region is the purple segment—Non-OECD Asia—which is also increasing very rapidly.
  • Africa, represented by the gold band second from the top, is clearly the second-largest region and has a rapidly growing population.

One of the disadvantages of a stacked bar chart is that may not show data in as clear a manner as intended, and if not read carefully, might even be misleading. For example, in the above chart, the population of Africa increased more than 100% during this time period while the population of Non-OECD Asia increased by about 50%. Perhaps lost in this chart is that the population of the Middle East also grows by more than 100%.

The point is to make sure that you select the type of graph that best presents the data you want to emphasize.

Link(s) and Source(s):

Smart Draw

 Bar Chart


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