Hotspot Volcanoes

While most volcanoes / earthquakes occur along plate boundaries, there are exceptions. For example the volcanic Hawaiian islands which can be found in the middle of the Pacific Plate are formed due to a Hotspot. Hotspots are plumes of molten rock which rise underneath a plate causing localised melting and the creation of magma resulting in volcanic activity. See this animation for further explanation of hotspot activity.

The origins of the concept of hotspots lie in the work of J. Tuzo Wilson, who postulated in 1963 that the Hawaiian Islands result from the slow movement of a tectonic plate across a hot region beneath the surface.It was later postulated that hotspots are fed by narrow streams of hot mantle rising from the Earth’s core–mantle boundary in a structure called a mantle plume. Whether or not such mantle plumes exist is currently the subject of a major controversy in Earth science. Estimates for the number of hotspots postulated to be fed by mantle plumes has ranged from about 20 to several thousands, over the years, with most geologists considering a few tens to exist. Hawaii, Réunion, Yellowstone,Galápagos, and Iceland are some of the currently most active volcanic regions to which the hypothesis is applied.


Posted in earth, interior of the Earth, seismic activities, Volcanoes | 2 Comments

Americans Lived on a Land Bridge for Thousands of year

It was believed that the Americas were populated by humans crossing from Siberia to Alaska across a land bridge was first proposed as far back as 1590, and has been generally accepted since the 1930s. But  evidence  from DNA studies shows there is no direct ancestral link between the people of ancient East Asia and modern Native Americans. it was concluded that Native Americans diverged genetically from their Asian ancestors around 25,000 years ago, just as the last ice age was reaching its zenith.

According to archaeological evidence, humans did not survive the last ice age’s peak in northeastern Siberia, and yet there is no evidence they had reached Alaska or the rest of the New World till then. While there is evidence to suggest northeast Siberia was inhabited during a warm period about 30,000 years ago before the last ice age peaked, after this the archaeological record goes silent, and only returns 15,000 years ago, after the last ice age ended.

So the million dollar question is-where did the ancestors of the Native Americans go for 15,000 years, after they left rest of their Asian relatives?

As John Hoffecker, Dennis O’Rourke and  argue in an article for Science, the answer seems to be that they lived on the Bering Land Bridge, the region between Siberia and Alaska that was dry land when sea levels were lower, as much of the world’s freshwater was locked up in ice, but which now lies underneath the waters of the Bering and Chukchi Seas. This theory has become increasingly supported by genetic evidence.

The Bering Land Bridge, also known as central part of Beringia, is believed to have been up to 600 miles wide. Based on evidence from sediment cores drilled into the now submerged landscape, it seems that here and in some adjacent regions of Alaska and Siberia the landscape at the height of the last glaciation 21,000 years ago was shrub tundra – as found in Arctic Alaska today.

Escape to America

The last ice age ended and the land bridge began to disappear beneath the sea, some 13,000 years ago. Global sea levels rose as the vast continental ice sheets melted, liberating billions of gallons of fresh water. As the land bridge flooded, the entire Beringian region grew more warm and moist, and the shrub tundra vegetation spread rapidly, out-competing the steppe-tundra plants that had dominated the interior lowlands of Beringia.

It triggered human migration. As retreating glaciers opened new routes into the continent, humans traveled first into the Alaskan interior and the Yukon, and ultimately south out of the Arctic region and toward the temperate regions of the Americas. The first definitive archaeological evidence we have for the presence of people beyond Beringia and interior Alaska comes from this time, about 13,000 years ago.

These people are called Paleoindians by archaeologists-direct ancestors of nearly all of the Native American tribes in both North and South America – the original “first peoples”.

Link(s) Source(s) and Inspiration(s):

Primary Source

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40 Maps Explaining Food Production and Consumption in America(link)

Greatness of US is based on Agriculture



…..It is Based on Animals , mainly Cows . Cows are everywhere


Which Crops are Grown


Obesity Map………


click here for more maps

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Gulf Research Meeting 2016 Opens

headerThe GRM 2016 opens on 16th in University of Cambridge. It will be concluded on 19th of August.H.E. Dr. Abdullatif Rashid Al-Zayani, Secretary-General of the Gulf Cooperation Council, gave the keynote address at the opening session of the seventh annual Gulf Research Meeting.

The conference is divided in 11 workshops

  • Challenges Facing GCC Oil and Gas Exports
  • Collective Security in the Gulf: Prospects for Pan-Gulf Cooperation
  • Nuclear Energy for the Gulf: Key Questions and Opportunities
  • Towards a Sustainable Lifestyle in the Gulf
  • Yemen and the GCC: Future Relations
  • Arab Gulf Cities in Transition: Space, Politics and Society
  • Exploring the Dynamism of Islamic Finance in the GCC Region
  • The Future of GCC Labour Market Reform: Towards a Multi-Disciplinary, Sustainable, Evidence-Based and Practical Understanding
  • New Security Dynamics in the Gulf and the Transformation of the GCC States’ Security Agenda
  • Foreign Relations of the GCC Countries amid Shifting Global and Regional Dynamics
  • The Economics of Migration to the Gulf: Perspectives from Countries of Origin and Destination

Group Photograph of All Participants

About GRM

To enhance knowledge and research about the Gulf, the Gulf Research Center Cambridge has established an annual Gulf Research Meeting (GRM) with the clear objective to provide an academic environment to foster Gulf studies and to encourage scholarly and academic exchange among those working on or interested in the developments taking place that are defining the Gulf region and their constituent societies.

Set within the historic outlines of the University of Cambridge, the Gulf Research Meeting attempts to highlight the issues of importance to the Gulf region and provide a basis for undertaking and engaging in academic and empirical research in the fields of politics, economics, energy, security and the wider social sciences. Through parallel running workshops dedicated to specific topics, the Gulf Research Meeting addresses the existing shortcomings, to provide correct and insightful information about the region and to promote mutual understanding between the Gulf and the rest of the world.

I was to be a participant in Workshop 8 , but due to job switch I am not there. My Co-Author (and my wife) Dr. Rakhshanda F Fazli is there to participate and to present our paper “The GCC Labour Market and Indigenous Women Participation: Dynamics of Inclusive Policy“.


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