Category Archives: Class Notes

Functional Classification of Cities

The structure and functions of any region varies in terms of function, history of development as well as age of the town. Some towns and cities specialize in some functions and they are known for some  products or services. However, … Continue reading

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Some History of Egypt and Archaeological Discoveries from Nile Valley

The Greek historian Herodotus called Egypt, “The Gift of the Nile,” and along that life-giving river, the ancient Egyptians built their amazing civilization, one they ruled for three millennia. The history of Egypt is divided into : Prehistoric, Ancient, Greco-Roman, Medieval, and … Continue reading

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Contours: An Overview

Contour –  Contour is an imaginary line on ground joining points of equal or constant elevations. contours are important to draw the topographical maps in which vertical distances are also shown using the contour lines. Contour interval: Vertical distance between any … Continue reading

Posted in Class Notes, earth, Geography Practicals/Lab and Statistical Techniques | 1 Comment

Five Early Urban Hearths

Mesapotamia The first urban settlements are thought to have started around 3500BC in lower Mesopotamia (Sumer) around the Tigris and Euphrates. First was Ur, which from 2300 BC to 2180BC was the capital city of the Sumerian Kingdom, extending north … Continue reading

Posted in Class Notes, earth, Settlements, urban morphology, Urban Studies | 1 Comment