It is the study of channel geometry, channel fluid dynamics (e.g. discharge, velocity etc.), hydraulic geometry, channel bed topography, channel pattern etc.
- Channel: (stream itself) water course of a river confined within limits of valley walls.
- Crossover: Line joining both sides of the channel.
- Length: Distance from source of river to mouth. It is the line joining crossover mid-points.
- Width: Length of cross-over. It is not constant, depends on texture, discharge etc.
- Thalweg: Line joining the deepest part of river across the channel. Smooth for old river and irregular for younger. [Thalweg Doctrine- Sir Creck dispute.]
- Sinuosity: Deviation at actual channel path from theoretical straight path.
- Radius of curvature (rm): Radius of circle drawn through the apex of bend and the two crossover points. [Wavy meanders- Large ROC, Horse-shoe type- Small ROC]
- Meander Wave Length: Distance between two similar sided bend-apex.
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