The three main regions of India have followed essentially different pathways towards urbanism, conditioned both by technological innovations and ecological constraints. In the Indus and the Sarasvati valleys, the fertile alluvial tracts, perennial rivers, gallery forests, rich copper mineral belts, copper implements provided the inputs for the processes of urbanization. Peninsular India never seems to have gone through the proper copper-bronze age phase of development. It seems to have jumped from a neolithic phase to a full fledged Iron Age. Unfortunately, we know the south Indian early Iron Age more from the megalithic burials and their rich iron tool repertoire than from regular habitational sites. The Gangetic doab had a monsoonal ecology and when the Harappans were pushed into it they simply withered. A culture which used arsenical bronze existed in the doab but it is known only from its caches of copper artifacts, hence called the ‘Copper Hoard Culture’. Nothing is known about their settlement sites. Urbanization in the doab had to wait till the middle of the first millennium BC, when iron technology, with its mass abundance of tools, made it possible to generate surplus food and gradually it lead to the second phase of urbanization in India; the first having been in the middle of the third millennium BC.