The phenomenon of social well-being, though subjective, can be measured by studying several indirect indicators. Among them the demographic structure of human resource, socio-cultural and economic indicators are important. The resource making characteristics of human population include density of population, level of literacy, proportion of working population , proportion of females and dependents , proportion of urban population and proportion of houses to households. These aspects of population reflect to a greater extent the territorial inequalities in the levels of well-being.
Basically, social well-being has a cumulative effect on an individual’s aspirations, needs, achievements and feeling of satisfaction. Quite often these aspects are well-reflected in the visual and factual circumstances of an individual or a group of individuals.
Density of Population
The density of population is one of the important indicators of geographical synthesis and economic activities. The density of population is a better surrogate for carrying capacity of the land in rural areas. Thus, indirectly it brings out the productivity of land. In urban areas, the high density of population reflects, among other things, the accessibility to various social amenities (school, office, market, hospital, post and telegraph, bus and railway station, parks, playgrounds etc.).
Number of Post Boxes
The greater the number of post offices, post boxes, and the better the accessibility to them the higher the degree of communication are as important as personal communication between the settlements. The means of communication are as important as personal communication in strengthening social relations and harmonious living. The effective communication through modern means has strengthened better social well-being.
Slow Social Change
The degree of urbanization is positively associated with the quality of living. The urban areas, by and large, are better served with social amenities compared to the rural areas. Marked rural-urban contrast in terms of quality of environment, socio-economic inputs and the level of living influence the pattern of well-being. Social well-being of any society over the world has cultural and technological overtones. The advanced societies with their high level of technology are ahead in terms of material well-being. The early and rapid urbanization and industrialization have brought in changes in social values. But the process of social change is rather slow and selective in a majority of the third world countries on account of limited urbanization and industrialization.
The proportion of literate population is considered to be one of the important territorial indicators for measuring the level of community living or social well-being. It is believed that literacy in general brings about much desired public awareness especially by way of their effective participation in the developmental activities. However, the percentage of literacy alone as an indicator of social progress and well-being need not always show an encouraging pattern of well-being. The other factors such as level of education, diversification and specialization of education significantly contribute to the well-being of society. On account of educational facilities, communication media network, cosmopolitan social structure and selective but effective interaction in urban areas, the proportion of the literates and the educated may be more in urban areas.
Labour Force in Formal Sectors
Human resource is the basic requirement for attaining desired economic objectives. The proportion of labour force in different sectors of economy determines the level of economic development as well as material well-being.
The dwelling unit is one of the basic needs of human beings.
Housing facility is one of the vital aspects of civilized life. It is not only an indicator of social welfare but also of cultural and economic well-being. Census statistics on housing in India does not differentiate between the houses used for residential purpose and non-residential purpose.
Electric Power Supply
The well-being of an individual or a community as a whole depends largely on the availability of electric power. The modern living whether in rural areas or in urban areas heavily depends on new technology which is power based. Similarly the innovations in various economic sectors use power to a great extent. Most of the modern sources of comforts