If one turns to urbanization, again there are major problems with how it is usually approached by social scientists. once more, no one can doubt the great importance of the subject. For example, almost every country in the world is currently urbanizing, and many countries are experiencing unprecedented rapid rates of urban growth.There is a vital questions “Why Cities Grow so fast?”. However, these facts are usually taken as the starting point for analysis. In as much as research addresses anything further back in the causal chain, it tends to give the most attention to the role of rural-to-urban migration in bringing about urbanization. indeed, migration probably receives undue weight in this respect. as others have observed, the causes of urbanization have received relatively little attention ( Preston 1979; woods 2003a).
In addition, demographers and other social scientists often place too much weight on the interpretation of early experience in their attempts at explanation. this inclination can be especially strong if the early experience relates to their own culture and history. relatedly, there is a tendency to frame explanations in terms of features that eventually turn out to be relatively superficial. Such problems have affected research on both the demographic transition and urbanization. thus, the fact that in European societies in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries industrialization and modern economic growth accompanied the demographic transition and urbanization has encouraged the idea that the former sorts of economic processes are the causes of the latter. However, such economic interpretations have faced difficulties in recent decades, because processes like fertility decline and urbanization have been occurring in settings where sustained economic growth and industrialization are largely absent.
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