Endogenetic forces are forces resulting from dynamic processes operating beneath the crust of the Earth. They cause:
- Diastrophism: Lifting of a large part of the crust in elevation
- Orogeny: Folding, warping, faulting in the crust which may occur as a result of diastrophism.
- Volcanism: a process whereby molten rock material from beneath the crust pushes through the crust and builds up the surface of the earth.
- Exogenetic forces are the forces that work from outside the earth.Landforms (often plains or minor landforms) created from forces outside the earth which act upon the surface and change it.
- Weathering: the breaking down of rock by chemical and/or mechanical means into smaller particles in preparation for the next two forces.
- Erosion: the removal of weathered materials from higher elevations by moving water, wind, moving ice, and/or gravity.
- Deposition: the build up of weathered materials at lower elevations once the force of gravity cannot be overcome by an agent of erosion.
Landform that rises prominently above its surroundings, generally exhibiting steep slopes, a relatively confined summit area, and considerable local relief. Mountains generally are understood to be larger than hills, but the term has no standardized geological meaning. Very rarely do mountains occur individually. In most cases, they are found in elongated ranges or chains.
A usually rounded natural elevation of land lower than a mountain – lower in altitude and having less local relief. It has very little level land surface; however, it is usually much less steep than a mountain.
A usually extensive land area having a relatively level surface raised sharply above adjacent land on at least one side sometimes referred to as a tableland. The steep surface where it rises sharply above the adjacent land is called an escarpment
Any relatively level area of the Earth’s surface exhibiting gentle slopes and small local relief. Plains vary widely in size. The smallest occupy only a few hectares, whereas the largest cover hundreds of thousands of square kilometers.The majority of the world’s most extensive plains were formed as a result of the dominance of erosional and depositional processes over tectonic activity—e.g., uplift or subsidence of the Earth’s crust.