GIS and Cartography

Maps have been an integral part of the human story for a long time. From cave/wall paintings, ancient maps of Babylon and
Greek philosophers, through the Age of Exploration, and on into the 21st century, people have created and used maps as the
essential tools to help them define, explain and navigate their way through the world.

(A Map of the World 1500 AD)

Cartography is the art, science and technology of making maps. Cartography was used as early as the 23rd century BC in
Babylon. In this technique of map making, the artist has to manually draw the map using hand tools, thus making it a time
consuming and difficult method of geographic representation. Also Hand Cartography is less accurate and is limited in the scope
of representation.

Although manual mapping techniques are still used the advent and spread of computers has revolutionized cartography.
Most commercial quality maps are now made with map making software that falls into one of three main types; CAD, GIS,
and specialized map illustration software.


(A GIS generated World Map)

The main differences between Cartography and GIS are in their functional components:

A GIS contains these four components:

● Input
● Database
● Analysis
●Output

In contrast, a Cartographic system can be described in three components:
● Input
● Map design
●Output
In the present scenario, Hand Cartography is becoming an obsolete technology and is rapidly being replaced by GIS.

source

About Rashid Faridi

I am Rashid Aziz Faridi ,Writer, Teacher and a Voracious Reader.
This entry was posted in GIS, Remote Sensing 101. Bookmark the permalink.

1 Response to GIS and Cartography

  1. I learned about anthropomorphic maps from the linguist Dan Moonhawk Alford (deceased) and the anthropologist Stan Knowlton. They described the maps of Napi, the creator of the Blackfoot Indians (aka The Old Man) and his wife (The Old Woman) in Alberta, Canada. I “found” similar maps of a male body (Hermes ?) in the Middle East and a female body (Aphrodite) in north Africa.

    Anthropomorphic Maps

    Anthropomorphic maps were generated by configuring the body of a god or goddess over the area to be mapped. The name of each part of that body became the name of the area under that part. This produced a scale 1:1 map-without-paper on which each place name automatically indicated its approximate location and direction with respect to every other place on the same map whose name was produced in this way.

    You are cordially invited to join the BPMaps discussion group on this topic, a very quiet list that averages about 2 messages per month. The URL is:
    http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/BPMaps/

    The Challenge: To produce computer software that will find additional body-part maps elsewhere in the world. Available inputs:
    (1) geographic databases with ancient place names (e.g., the Perseus project).
    (2) body-part names on Swadesh lists. Unfortunately, the navel is not included.

    Attributes of Anthropomorphic Maps

    (1) The navel is the center of the body, the center of the map, and usually the center of the map’s language community.

    (2) Place names (toponyms) may be reversed, metathesized, misspelled or euphemized for various reasons:

    (a) The same part in the same language exists on another map of a different body. Cranium > Mo[n]rocco because Ukraine existed? Aphrodite is looking backwards over her right shoulder. She is bent at her waist (Misr/Mitzraim = MoSNaiM).

    (b) The left (sinister) part is altered in names for left-right pairs (arms, legs, eyes, ears). DoFeN = side reversed to Nafud in north Arabia. SHvK = thigh with a T-sound for the letter shin = TvK reversed to Kuwait. BeReKH = knee metathesized to Bahrain.

    (c) Names that represent taboo body parts or funcitons are reversed or euphemized:
    Semitic PoS (female pudenda) reverses to yam SooF = sea of reeds (Red Sea).
    Mare Rubrum (Latin for Red Sea) represented Aphrodite’s menstruation
    CaNa3an (3 = aiyin with a G-sound as in 3aZa = Gaza) is a reversal of Greek gyneco-.
    Sinai = “snatch” is spelled SiNi in Hebrew. The aleph=CHS is intentionally missing.
    ZaYiN = weapon (a euphemism for his male member) is in Sinai as the desert of Zin.

    (3) Names may be loan-translated due to conquest or language-change.

    (a) Roxolania (Semitic Ro[chs]SH = head) => Rus *( Ro@SH) => Ukraine (Greek kranion)
    * Caused by a change in the sound of the aleph from CHS to a glottal stop.

    (b) Libya (Semitic LeB = heart) => Cyrenaica (Latin cor = heart, compare coronary) => Libya

    (4) Rivers and bodies of water may be named after bodily excretions:

    (a) Milk River in Alberta.
    (b) Red Sea (Latin Mare Rubrum) is Aphrodite’s menstruation.
    (c) Gulf of Aqaba (Semitic QaVaH = digestion/defecation)

    (5) Internal body parts may represent subdivisions of external parts.

    (a) Arabic Misr / Hebrew Mitzraim (< TSaR = narrow) = waist (Hebrew MoSNaim). Egypt (< Greek hepato- = liver). Goshen (with a T-sound shin Latin Gossypium (English gossamer = cotton-like)

    (b) Atlas mountains < atlas = first cervical vertebra that supports the cranium.

    (6) Islands near a body’s hands may be named for weapons.

    (a) Trinacria = trident ( Sicily (< VL *sicila < Latin secula = sickle to harvest wheat; compare Semitic SaKiN = knife). The trident was in Neptune / Poseidon’s right hand (Italy, like Anatolia < N’TiLas yad = arm being washed by the seas).

    (b) Greece = reversal of Semitic S’RoG = (weighted) net, held in his left hand.

    (c) Crete = reversal of targe = small shield (compare English target) also in his left hand.

    Aphrodite

    The map of Aphrodite is in north Africa. Her face [PaNim] was lost during the 3rd Punic war. The rest of her is still there. She is looking backwards over her right shoulder, so her CRaniuM is reversed at Morocco. It still has a Fez. Her chin [SaNTir] is reversed at Tunisia. The Atlas (anatomy: first cervical vertebra) mountains support her head. Her hair [Sa3aRa] is the Sahara desert. Her backbone [amood SHiDRa] is the Gulf of Sidra. Her heart [LeB] is Libya. Her breast [SHaD] is Chad. Her narrow [TZaR] waist is Misr / Mitzraim. Her liver (Greek hepato-) is Egypt. Cotton (Arabic QuTN, Latin Gossypium) was exported from Goshen, her [QiTNit = bean]-shaped kidney. Her side [TZaD] is Sudan. Her other side [DoFeN] is Dafur. Her left [SMoL] leg is Somalia.

    [NeGeV] is a reversal of vagina and may be related to [NeKeV] = aperture. [CaNa3aN] was her Latin cunnus (and a reversal of Greek gyneco-). Its name changed to [YiSRa@eL] at the time when [Ya3aKoV] / Jacob “fought with god and men” [Gen 32:29]. This represented a change in sovereignty from Africa to Asia minor. [ YiSRa@eL] is that body part that gives [@oSHeR] = delight to [@eL] = god when it is [YaSHaR] = straight, upright. Changing Jacob’s name from [Ya3aKoV] = “ankle; curved, bent” to [YiSRa@eL] = “straight, upright + god” represents an interesting physiological process.

    Hermes

    The body-part map of Hermes is in Asia minor. kHermes [kHoR = hole + MoSnaim = waist] lived at Mt. kHermon before he moved Mt. Olympus (Greek omphalos = navel). Later his name was reversed to become Latin Mercury. Compare Amerigo Vespucci and America.

    His head [Ro@SH] was at Roxolania/Rus, south of Belarus. Its name changed to the Ukraine (Gk kranion = cranium, *not *Slavic u kraina = to/at the border). His throat [GaRGeret] is Georgia. His left shoulder [KaSaF] is the Caspian sea. His right shoulder [@aTZiL] was Euxinus, now the Black Sea. His right arm/hand is being washed [NaTiLat] at Anatolia. His upper arm (Sanskrit irma) at Armenia, biceps (Greek pontiki = muscle) at Pontus, elbow [KiFooF yaD] at Cappadocia, wrist [m’FaReK] at Phrygia, and thumb [BoHeN] at Bithynia were in Anatolia. His heart (Greek cardia) became Kurdistan. His narrow [TZaR] waist is Syria and his navel (Sanskrit nabhila) reverses to LeBaNon.

    South of Lebanon is the male member (Greek phallus) named Philistina. See [CaNa3aN / YiSRa@eL] above. His buttocks [YeReKH] is Iraq. His thigh [shin-vav-kuf] sounded like TvK and reversed to Kuwait. His knee [BeReKH] is partially reversed in Bahrain. His right [Y’MiN] foot is at Yemen.

    These two bodies are connected, literally, at Sinai (with an aleph that is not written in Hebrew, compare “snatch”, a reversal of [K’NiSah] = entrance), a part of her body that contains the desert of Zin, his “zaiyin”.

    Aphrodite as an Anthropomorphic Map

    The goddess we call Aphrodite
    Is not just an old Grecian deity.
    The Phoenicians did make
    Her a map. It’s not fake.
    Her body is cartograffiti.

    The Punic war destroyed her face,
    The Romans left nary a trace.
    But her hair is still there,
    In Sahara, that’s where.
    And her chin’s a Tunisian place.

    Mt. Atlas is her first verTebra.
    Her backbone is now Gulf of Sidra.
    Her heart is in Libya,
    Her left leg, Somalia.
    Her breast is in Chad wearing no bra.

    The Greeks called her liver Egypt, an’
    Her kidney was Biblical Goshen.
    She’s bent at her waist,
    Now Misr-ably placed.
    The Red Sea was her menstruation.

    As a kid I did think the Red Sea
    Was an English map typo: lost E,
    From Reed Sea in Hebrew.
    But that could not be true,
    Mare Rubrum ’twas Latin, B.C.

    Aphrodite with Hermes did sin,
    We know this is true ’cause within
    Her “snatch” we call Sinai
    His “zaiyin” does still lie.
    It’s known as the desert of Zin.

    Best regards,
    Israel “izzy” Cohen
    cohen.izzy@gmail.com
    http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/BPMaps/

    Like

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