Sneezing monkey, Walking Fish and a Jewel-like Snake amongst 200 new Species found in Hilmalayas

Himalaya is a  biodiversity hotspot.A report, Hidden Himalayas: Asia’s Wonderland released on World Habitat Day maps out  new species found by scientists from various organizations including 133 plants, 39 invertebrates, 26 fish, 10 amphibians, one reptile, one bird and one mammal.

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Online Shopping: CouponzGuru Provides Special Coupons for Recharging and Buying On Net

CouponzGuru has become the destination for all those who want to save money while doing any type of online transaction. If you’re someone who always keeps searching for special deals, then the special coupons provided by CouponzGuru shall definitely be useful for you. May it be recharging online or doing online shopping, CouponzGuru has got coupons for everyone. It is good to see that such type of coupons websites are now understanding the requirement of people and providing the coupons which they require currently.

This post will make you know some of the most useful coupons. You’ll be able to get discount on recharge, smartphones, laptops and many other products by making use of these special coupons by CouponzGuru.

Paytm Coupons – Save Money on Online Recharge

Busy lifestyle has made people prefer online recharging sites as now they don’t often have time to visit any local store.

There are many online recharge sites available, but you can’t trust every recharge site.

Paytm is one of the most trusted online recharge sites as it has been there from years. You can rely on it without thinking much as the site works very fast and is genuine. Instant recharge without any delay is possible by making use of Paytm.

CouponzGuru is providing some special Paytm Coupons which will allow you to save money. You’ll be able to get cashback if you’ll make use of the latest coupons. Don’t miss this chance of getting cashback and discount while doing prepaid recharge, DTH recharge etc.

One should also check out the special cashback coupons available on buying a smartphone, laptop, books and others products using Paytm.

Snapdeal Offers

Snapdeal is an online shopping site which you may be used regularly for purchasing different products.

Many shoppers in India keep looking for Snapdeal Coupons and snapdeal offers as it will allow them to save good amount of money. Mobiles, laptops, apparels, sunglasses, books and many other best products can be purchased from Snapdeal.

One of the most useful coupons seems to be the voucher that shall provide you with recharge as well as you’ll be able to get Rs 100 Snapdeal voucher for free. Value Bazaar coupons shall allow you to get Rs 149 to Rs 199 deals.

There are variety of such coupons which will make you save money on clothes, particular mobile phones, televisions etc.

You must not think that you’ve got lot of time to use these coupons. It is quite possible that most coupons could be available for a limited time. Make sure that you’re making the best use of them. CouponzGuru is always there for you as it understands that you may require special cashbacks and discount coupons regularly.

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Clan, Gotra and Tribe

A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent. Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may be organized around a founding member or apical ancestor. The kinship-based bonds may be symbolical, whereby the clan shares a “stipulated” common ancestor that is a symbol of the clan’s unity. When this “ancestor” is non-human, it is referred to as a totem, which is frequently an animal. Clans can be most easily described as tribes or sub-groups of tribes. The word clan is derived from clann meaning children or progeny but not family in the Irish language[1][2] and Scottish Gaelic languages. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word was introduced into English around the year 1425 as a label for the tribal nature of the Scottish Highlands society.[3] Clans in indigenous societies are likely to be exogamous, meaning that their members cannot marry one another. Clans preceded more centralized forms of community organization and government; they are located in every country. Members may identify with a coat of arms or other symbol to show they are an independent clan.


In Hindu society, the term gotra means clan. It broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor or patriline. Generally the gotra forms an exogamous unit, with the marriage within the same gotra being prohibited by custom, being regarded as incest. The name of the gotra can be used as a surname, but it is different from a surname and is strictly maintained because of its importance in marriages among Hindus, especially among the higher castes. Pāṇini defines “gotra” for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram (IV. 1. 162), which means “the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son’s son.” When a person says “I am Kashyapa-gotra,” he means that he traces his descent from the ancient sage Kashyapa by unbroken male descent. Among non-Brahmins, the gotras generally do not go back to sages, except in case of some communities such as Rajputs.


A tribe is defined, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states. Many anthropologists used the term tribal society to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of kinship, especially corporate descent groups.

Some political economic theorists such as Elman Service hold that tribes represent a stage in social evolution intermediate between bands and states. Other theorists, such as Morton Fried, argue that tribes developed after states, and must be understood in terms of their relationship to them.

‘Tribe’ is a contested negative term due to its roots in colonialism. The word has no shared referant, whether in political form, kinship relations, or shared culture. It conveys a negative connotation of a timeless unchanging past. To avoid these implications, some have chosen to use the terms ‘ethnic group’, or nation instead.

Source(s),Links and Inspirations:

Todas of India( )

Santhal:Largest Tribal Community in India ( )

Tribes in India ( )

Pygmies (

read more on tribes and race

Gujjar Tribe

Gonds of India

Naga Tribe

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India Launched its Own Space Observatory

India has taken a giant leap in satellite launching.Astrosat, India’s first dedicated space observatory, was launched . It is aimed at studying celestial objects.

With it PSLV-C30, the launch vehicle  is carrying six other co-passengers, one satellite each from Indonesia and Canada, and four nanosatellites from the US.

While ASTROSAT  weighed 1,513 kg, the six foreign satellites (four from the US and one each from Indonesia and Canada) together weighed 118 kg.

For the third time, a PSLV rocket has launched seven satellites in a single mission. In 2008, ISRO had launched 10 satellites in one go, including India’s Cartosate-2A satellite. India crossed the half century milestone when its rocket injected the six foreign satellites successfully into their intended orbit.It is a great source of income for ISRO and India.

Astronat is not India’s ‘Hubble’

Astronat is not India’s ‘Hubble’. The Hubble owned and launched by the US in 1990 is 10 times heavier than the Astrosat and is said to cost $2.5 billion.While the Hubble space telescope is still working now, India’s ASTROSAT’s life span is five years.Astrosat is India’s first dedicated multi-wavelength space observatory. This scientific satellite mission endeavours for a more detailed understanding of our universe.

Work it Will Do

Astrosat will observe the universe in optical, ultraviolet, low and high energy X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum whereas most other scientific satellites are capable of observing a narrow range of wavelength band.

The mission is also to detect new briefly bright X-ray sources in the sky and to perform a limited deep field survey of the universe in the ultraviolet region.

Astrosat scheduled for five years of flight carries four X-ray payloads, one UV telescope and a charge particle monitor.

The five payloads/instruments of ASTROSAT are selected to facilitate deeper insight into the various astrophysical processes occurring in the various types of astronomical objects constituting our universe, Isro said.

The payloads are developed by different institutions-domestic and foreign- on their own or collaborating with Isro.


Of the five payloads, the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) is jointly developed by Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), Bengaluru and Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) at Pune in collaboration with Canadian Space Agency and ISRO.

This instrument can observe the sky in the visible near ultraviolet and far ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The second payload Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) is developed by Tata Institute for Fundamental Research TIFR), Mumbai and Raman Research Institute (RRI), Bengaluru.

The third payload Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) is developed by TIFR in collaboration with the University of Leicester, UK and ISRO.

The fourth payload Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager (CZTI) was developed by TIFR and IUCAA in collaboration with Isro.

And the fifth one Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) was jointly developed by ISRO Satellite Centre at Bengaluru and IUCAA.

Co Passengers

The Indonesian 76 kg LAPAN-A2 is a micro-satellite from the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space, meant for providing maritime surveillance using automatic identification system (AIS), supporting Indonesian radio amateur communities for disaster mitigation and carrying out earth surveillance using video and digital camera.

The 14 kg NLS-14 (Ev9) of Space Flight Laboratory, the University of Toronto Institute for Advanced Studies, is also a maritime monitoring Canadian nano satellite using the next generation AIS.

The remaining four LEMUR nano satellites from Spire Global Inc., San Francisco, US, are non-visual remote sensing satellites, focusing primarily on global maritime intelligence through vessel tracking via AIS and high-fidelity weather forecasting using GPS radio occultation technology, the ISRO said.


Apart from Isro, four other Indian institutions – Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Raman Research Institute are involved in payload development.

Two of the payloads are in collaboration with Canadian Space Agency and University of Leiscester.

read more here

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A Nice Documentary on Manjhi: The Mountain Man

A friend has made a nice documentary on Manjhi. Have a look.

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Early Worlds / Recent Ruins

Originally posted on MACHINES OF URBANIZATION:

forum ruin

This studio tasks students to experiment with a new domestic architecture on the site of Parc del Fòrum in Barcelona. We will treat this site as a ruin. Architecture will conceive of itself as the act of a radical reinterpretation of the recent spatial productions of the capitalist world.

We depart on this project by marking an end. In whatever sense still possible, this project is the declaration of a terminal point of a recent history in which architecture has played a crucial role. This history is one whose lavish excesses, driven by an evermore abstract world economy, has found an eager partner in the architects and developers who design and produce exuberant architectures, immersive spaces and spectacular infrastructures—materializations of an immaterial financial network whose vast web touches down on selected sites around the globe with ever new formulae of spatial development and whose production occurs under the dubious auspices of…

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