Defining City Region

City region is a metropolitan area and its  hinterland, often having a shared administration. It denotes a city, conurbation or urban zone with multiple administrative districts, but sharing resources like a central business district, labour market and transport network such that it functions as a single unit.

City regions are result of interrelationship among various orders of cities and their surroundings. A city has its ‘dependents’ which are linked with it by virtue of their dwellers’ requirements catered by the city’s various service-institutions and sometimes administrative functions. Dependent centres of a city are generally smaller in size and they do not possess those specialized services which are only available at the neighbouring city of higher order than the dependent centres.

There are two types of relationship, and these two types produce two different natures of regions around a city:

(i) City region comprising towns of lower order of services, and institutions, and

(ii) City region and surrounding countryside.

No city is independent. In fact, an independent city cannot exist. A city may be administrative, industrial, agricultural, and cultural or of any type; it must have its connections with the outside world. Areas outside a city are also not independent. They too somehow have to give and take  with the surroundings and are not independent.

There exists mutual relationship between a settlement and area surrounding it. Sometimes, the relationship is concomitantly not restricted locally or regionally but it has its far and wide spheres of influence.

In studying human geography, urban and regional planning or the regional dynamics of business it is often worthwhile to have closer regard to dominant travel patterns during the working day (to the extent that these can be estimated and recorded) than to the rather arbitrary boundaries assigned to administrative bodies such as councils, prefectures, or localities defined merely to optimise postal services. Inevitably, city regions change their shapes over time and quite reasonably, politicians seek to redraw administrative boundaries by perceived geographic reality. The extent of a city region is usually proportional to the intensity of activity in and around its central business district, but the spacing of competing centres of population can also be highly influential. It will be appreciated that a city region need not have a symmetrical shape, and that is especially true in coastal or lakeside situations  such as Oslo, Southampton or Chicago.

Source(s) and Link(s):



Rural Settlements in India

Concept of Region


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Dimensions of Smart City

The city is built layer by layer. There are many attributes separated in many features of the city singularly considered smart” and not holistically. Giffinger et al. (2007) identified four fields of realization of a “smart city”: industry, education, participation, and technical infrastructure.

The structure and nature of the city are ever changing throughout its history. From the first city to modern day city there are many avatars of the city. Although we want the planned city today it was not always possible. Often, they were a natural outcome of the process. The fact is evident if we trace the history from the Zigurrat  of Ur to today’s modern and smart city.

A recent project conducted by the Centre of Regional Science at the Vienna University of Technology identifies six main “axes” (dimensions) along which a ranking of 70 European middle size cities was made. These axes are the smart economy, smart mobility, smart environment, smart people, smart living, and smart governance. These six axes connect with traditional regional and neoclassical theories of urban growth and development. In particular, the axes are based -respectively -on theories of regional competitiveness, transport and ICT, natural resources, human and social capital, quality of life, and the participation of society members in cities.

Dimensions of a smart city-related aspect of urban life

  • Smart economy is manifested in industry
  •  Smart people are  because of the efficient education system
  • Smart governance is ensured by e-democracy
  • Smart mobility is introduced through better logistics & infrastructures
  •  The smart environment is represented by efficiency & sustainability
  • The key to smart living is in better security & quality

The term “smart city” is often used to discuss the integration of ICT in modern transport technologies. Smart systems improve urban traffic and inhabitants’ mobility. Smart city integrates technologies, systems, infrastructures services, and capabilities into an efficient organic network. The role of technology in smart city initiatives stresses the integration of systems, infrastructures, and services mediated through technologies. Technology is a means to the smart city, not an end. IT is for creating a new innovative environment, which requires the comprehensive and balanced integration of creative skills, innovative organizations, broadband networks, and virtual collaborative spaces (Komninos, 2009). The smart city development should focus on people rather than rather than blindly believing that IT can automatically transform and improve cities. Positive approaches to awareness, education, and leadership offer services that are accessible to all of the citizens, get rid of barriers related to language, culture, education, skills development, and disabilities.

The smart city concept has also been viewed as a large organic system stressing the fact that the organic integration of systems and the interrelationship between a smart city’s core systems make a smart city. A smarter city weave information in physical infrastructure of the city to improve conveniences, facilitate mobility, add efficiencies, conserve energy, improve the quality of air and water, identify problems and fix them quickly, recover rapidly from disasters, collect data to make better decisions, deploy resources effectively, and share data to enable collaboration across entities and domains (Nam and Pardo, 2012). However, infusing intelligence into each subsystem of a city, one by one is not enough to become a smarter city, as this should be treated as an organic whole (Kanter and Litow, 2009).


Four Pillars of City Sustainability

Resilience and Sustainability

First Urbanization In India

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Building more affordable eco-housing worldwide

[Versión en español abajo] Eco-housing is often assumed to cost more to build than conventional housing. The main way in which eco-construction costs are reduced is through self-build, but this does not help most people. Instead there is a need to reconceive the costs of eco-building and develop more radical alternatives for building low cost […]

via Building more affordable eco-housing worldwide — ECO-HOMES + COMMUNITIES

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Tourism Region

A tourism region is a geographical region that has been designated by the state or tourism managing authority as having common cultural or environmental characteristics. These regions are often named after the historical region or current administrative and geographical regions. Others have names created specifically for tourism purposes. The names highlight  positive qualities of the area and suggest a wholesome tourism experience to visitors. Countries, states, provinces, and other administrative regions are often carved up into tourism regions. In addition to drawing the attention of potential tourists, these tourism regions often provide tourists who are otherwise unfamiliar with an area with a manageable number of options.

Some of the more famous tourism regions based on historical or current administrative regions include Tuscany in Italy and Yucatán in Mexico. Famous examples of regions created by a government or tourism bureau include the United Kingdom’s Lake District and California’s Wine Country in the United States.

Historically, tourism regions  developed in areas widely considered to be of historical, cultural, or natural importance such as the Niagara Falls region of New York and Canada, the Lake District of England, the French Riviera and the Italian Riviera. Others developed around specific attractions such as a major city, i.e. Paris, or a monument such as the Pyramids of Giza. Tourist regions have existed for thousands of years for relaxation and leisure as well as for religious expression. For example,the ancient Romans visited the hot springs of Bath in Roman Britain while Santiago de Compostela was a site of mass Christian pilgrimage supported by a major medieval tourism industry that provided travelers with accommodations along their pilgrimage route.

Governments around the globe have attempted to maximize tourism potential by creating tourism regions. This process consists of dividing their territories into discrete tourism regions in such a way that every inch of that country, state, or region is given an attractive name, provided with advertising, and basic tourism infrastructure such as signage. Some traditionally heavily visited countries such as France have implemented this strategy to encourage tourists who would normally only spend time in more famous areas such as Paris and the French Riviera to venture out into designated tourism regions such as the Western Loire Valley and Franche-Comté. The first of these is a more recently constructed region, while Franche-Comté has been a distinct political and cultural region since the Middle Ages.

Source(s): Wikipedia


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