Changing Urban scenario in the Nineteenth Century in Ottoman Urban Space

In nineteenth-century, urban space in the Balkans underwent a drastic change. The urban population constantly expanded, with Christians especially increasing in number. Owing to energetic activity on the part of non-Muslim merchants and artisans, the urban economy as a whole flourished in many parts of the peninsula; and the very scenery of the cities was changed substantially as well. Alongside centuries-old mosques and hammams (public baths), the city centre was now furnished with European-style buildings, such as city halls, community houses, clock towers, schools and the elegant residences of wealthy merchants.

Traditional Balkan historiography has posited that the basic driving force underlying these changes was the emergence of a national bourgeoisie.1 Such a view regards the changes in the urban space as a prelude to national independence. The same period, however, was the time when reform-minded Ottoman bureaucrats attempted to introduce a European-style rule to wide-ranging fields of administration, with particular concern for the renovation of the urban space. In this chapter, There were significant effects of Ottoman municipal reform on the modernisation of Balkan urban space.

The once prosperous ancient urban civilization of the Balkans had almost died out by the time of the Ottoman conquest. The Ottomans brought with them a new flavour of urban culture from the Middle Eastern Islamic civilization. Towns were initially built for the Ottoman administrative authorities and for the army garrisons. Gradually, in many towns, there began to appear Islamic foundations that provided the infrastructure for the various economic activities of Muslim merchants and artisans, who quickly took over from local Christian mercantile classes, and dominated the urban space.

Source: The City in the Ottoman Empire: Migration and the Making of Urban Modernity

Edited by Ulrike Freitag, Malte Fuhrmann, Nora Lafi and Florian Riedler

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Why herd immunity to COVID-19 is reached much earlier than thought – update

Iowa Climate Science Education

Reposted from Dr. Judith Curry?s Climate Etc.

Posted on July 27, 2020 by niclewis

By Nic Lewis

I showed in my May 10th article Why herd immunity to COVID-19 is reached much earlier thanthought that inhomogeneity within a population in the susceptibility and in the social-connectivity related infectivity of individuals would reduce, in my view probably very substantially, the herd immunity threshold (HIT), beyond which an epidemic goes into retreat. I opined, based on my modelling, that the HIT probably lay somewhere between 7% and 24%, and that evidence from Stockholm County suggested it was around 17% there, and had been reached. Mounting evidence supports my reasoning.[1]

I particularly want to highlight an important paper published on July 24th ?Herd immunity thresholds estimated from unfolding epidemics? (Aguas et al.).[2] The author team is much the same as that of the earlier theoretical paper (Gomes et al.[3])…

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Impact of Urbanisation on Water Quality

There’s no end to the effects that urbanization can have on water bodies. Millions of people; landscape manipulation; waste material; dumping of chemicals and fertilizers; withdrawing water for peoples’ uses. As you expect, urbanization rarely improves water quality, but to prevent problems, one needs to understand how urbanization affects the local waters.

Urbanization and Water Quality

To some degree, “urbanization” (people living together in groups), has been taking place since ancient times. As populations rose and people mastered techniques to grow food in fixed locations, groups of people became settlements and then towns and cities. In the United States, the speed of this urbanization picked up after World War II, and now many urban areas are growing at a record pace. What are the effects on the local hydrologic system when a rural area is turned into an area full of housing developments, shopping centers, industrial buildings, and roads?

Beginning of urbanization

Change in Land Use:
Remove trees and vegetation. Begin building houses, some with sewers, and some with septic tanks. Begin drilling wells.

Effect on Water System:
More storm runoff and erosion because there is less vegetation to slow water as it runs downhills. More sediment is washed into streams. Flooding can occur because water-drainage patterns are changed.

Continuing urbanization

Change in Land Use:
Urbanization is finished by the addition of more roads, houses, and commercial and industrial buildings. More wastewater is discharged into local streams. New water supply and distribution systems are built to supply the growing population. Reservoirs may be built to supply water. Some stream channels are changed to accommodate building construction. Industries might drill some deep, large-capacity wells.

Effect on Water System:
More pavement means less water will soak into the ground, meaning that the underground water table will have less water to recharge it. This will lower the water table. Some existing wells will not be deep enough to get water and might run dry.

The runoff from the increased pavement goes into storm sewers, which then goes into streams. This runoff, which used to soak into the ground, now goes into streams, causing flooding. Changing a stream channel can cause flooding and erosion along the stream banks. More sewage is discharged into streams that weren’t “designed by nature” to handle that much water.

The use of too many large wells can lower the underground water table. This can cause other wells to run dry, can cause saltwater to be drawn into drinking-water wells, and can cause land that was formerly “held up” by underground water to subside, resulting in sinkholes and land subsidence.

Local community takes steps to fix some problems

Change in Land Use:
Improvements in the storm drainage system are made. Wells are drilled to recharge underground aquifers. Projects to reuse wastewater might be started.
Ecological-designed recharge ponds disperse some storm drainage to artificially recharge shallow aquifers.

Effect on Water System:
New storm-drainage systems reduce flooding during storms. Less damage is done to basements, yards, and streets. Water is actually injected into recharge wells to put water back into underground aquifers. Reusing wastewater means less pollution, more water conservation, and additional water for recharging aquifers.



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Eating for the environment

Shonil Bhagwat

A free OpenLearn course

‘You are what you eat’, goes the old adage, but what you eat also has an impact on the environment. This free course, Eating for the environment, will explore the links between food, nutrition and environmental sustainability. It will start by exploring the diversity on your dinner plate and encourage you to reflect on it in relation to dietary choices and preferences of people around the world. It will explore the connections between food, culture and traditions, and the challenges in providing healthy and nutritious food to the world’s growing population. The course will examine innovative approaches to food that also help environmental sustainability.

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • identify the diversity of ingredients on dinner plates from around the world
  • list the ingredients of a dinner plate and place them on the taxonomic tree
  • recognise traditional and cultural associations of…

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