Monthly Archives: March 2020

Zipf’s Principle of Least Effort

The principle of least effort is the theory that the “one single primary principle” in any human action, including verbal communication, is the expenditure of the least amount of effort to accomplish a task. Also known as Zipf’s Law, Zipf’s Principle of Least Effort, and … Continue reading

Posted in earth | Leave a comment

Urban Hierarchies and Anomalies

Settlements can be described as being part of the urban hierarchy. Where they stand on the hierarchy depends on many factors, the main ones being population, the number of services a settlement has and its sphere of influence. The best way to … Continue reading

Posted in earth | Leave a comment

Tourism: Its Spatial Affinity

Tourism and tourist show spatial affinity. Tourists tend to be attracted to some regions from antiquity. There are four major sets of factors affecting spatial affinity: Accommodation Attractions The economic impact of tourism Tourists Units of Consideration-Regions Tourist Regions corresponding … Continue reading

Posted in earth | Leave a comment


The urban fabric is the physical form of towns and cities. Like textiles, urban fabric comes in many different types and weaves.  COARSE GRAIN Coarse grain urban fabric is like burlap: rough, large-scale weaves that are functional, but not usually … Continue reading

Posted in Class Notes, earth, urban morphology, Urban Studies | Leave a comment