You research two groups and put them in categories single, married or divorced:

The numbers are definitely different, but …

- Is that just random chance?
- Or have you found something interesting?

The **Chi-Square Test** gives a “p” value to help you decide!

### Example: “Which holiday do you prefer?”

Beach | Cruise | |

Men | 209 | 280 |

Women | 225 | 248 |

### Does Gender affect Preferred Holiday?

If Gender (Man or Woman) **does** affect Preferred Holiday we say they are **dependent**.

By doing some special calculations (explained later), we come up with a “p” value:

p value is 0.132

Now, **p < 0.05** is the usual test for dependence. In this case, **p is greater than 0.05**, so we believe the variables are **independent** (ie not linked together).

In other words, Men and Women probably do **not** have a different preference for Beach Holidays or Cruises.

## Understanding “p” Value

“p” is the probability the variables are **independent**.

Imagine that the previous example was in fact two random samples of **Men** each time:

Men:Beach 209, Cruise 280 |
Men:Beach 225, Cruise 248 |

Is it **likely** you would get such different results surveying Men each time?

Well the “p” value of **0.132** says that it really could happen every so often.

Surveys are random after all. We expect slightly different results each time, right?

So most people want to see a **p-value** less than **0.05** before they are happy to say the results show the groups have a different response.

Let’s see another example:

### Example: “Which pet do you prefer?”

Cat | Dog | |

Men | 207 | 282 |

Women | 231 | 242 |

By doing the calculations (shown later), we come up with:

P value is 0.043

In this case **p < 0.05**, so this result is thought of as being “significant” meaning we think the variables are **not** independent.

In other words, because **0.043 < 0.05** we think that Gender is linked to Pet Preference (Men and Women have different preferences for Cats and Dogs).

*Just out of interest, notice that the numbers in our two examples are similar, but the resulting p-values are very different: 0.132 and 0.043. This shows how sensitive the test is!*

## Why p<0.05 ?

It is just a choice! **Using p<0.05 is common**, but we could have chosen p<0.01 to be even more sure that the groups behave differently, or any value really.

## Calculating P-Value

So how do we calculate this p-value? We use the Chi-Square Test!

## Chi-Square Test

Note: **Chi** Sounds like “Hi” but with a **K**, so say Chi-Square like “**Ki** square”

And Chi is the greek letter Χ, so we can also write it Χ^{2}

Important points before we get started:

- This test only works for
**categorical**data (data in categories), such as Gender {Men, Women} or color {Red, Yellow, Green, Blue} etc, but**not numerical**data such as height or weight. - The numbers must be large enough. Each entry must be
**5**or more. In our example we have values such as 209, 282, etc, so we are good to go.

### Our first step is to state our **hypotheses**:

**Hypothesis**: A statement that might be true, which can then be tested.

The two **hypotheses** are.

- Gender and preference for cats or dogs are
**independent**. - Gender and preference for cats or dogs are
**not independent**.

### Lay the data out in a table:

Cat | Dog | |

Men | 207 | 282 |

Women | 231 | 242 |

### Add up rows and columns:

Cat | Dog | ||

Men | 207 | 282 | 489 |

Women | 231 | 242 | 473 |

438 | 524 | 962 |

### Calculate “Expected Value” for each entry:

Multiply each row total by each column total and divide by the overall total:

Cat | Dog | ||

Men | 489×438/962 | 489×524/962 | 489 |

Women | 473×438/962 | 473×524/962 | 473 |

438 | 524 | 962 |

Which gives us:

Cat | Dog | ||

Men | 222.64 | 266.36 | 489 |

Women | 215.36 | 257.64 | 473 |

438 | 524 | 962 |

### Subtract expected from actual, square it, then divide by expected:

Cat | Dog | ||

Men | \frac{(207-222.64)^{2}}{222.64} | \frac{(282-266.36)^{2}}{266.36} | 489 |

Women | \frac{(231-215.36)^{2}}{215.36} | \frac{(242-257.64)^{2}}{257.64} | 473 |

438 | 524 | 962 |

Which is:

Cat | Dog | ||

Men | 1.099 | 0.918 | 489 |

Women | 1.136 | 0.949 | 473 |

438 | 524 | 962 |

### Now add up those values:

1.099 + 0.918 + 1.136 + 0.949 = 4.102

Chi-Square is 4.102

## From Chi-Square to p

To get from Chi-Square to p-value is a difficult calculation, so either look it up in a table, or use the Chi-Square Calculator.

But first you will need a “Degree of Freedom” (DF)

### Calculate Degrees of Freedom

Multiply (rows − 1) by (columns − 1)

Example: DF = (2 − 1)(2 − 1) = 1×1 = 1

### Result

The result is:

p = 0.04283

Done!

## Chi-Square Formula

This is the formula for Chi-Square:

- O = the
**Observed**(actual) value - E = the
**Expected**value

**A Helpful Video**

**Source:**