Pros and Cons of Urbanization

Urbanization brings with it several consequences – both adverse and beneficial. They impact on social and environmental areas.

Adverse effects of Urbanization

There is increasing competition for facilities  in urban areas, which results in several negative effects. Many people mainly farmers who move to cities in search of a better life  and better occupational opportunities end up as casual labourers. This leads to menacing problems of urbanization – the growth of slums and unmanaged Urban Sprawl. Urban sprawl often leads to negative consequences.

Slums are urban areas that are heavily populated with substandard housing and very poor living conditions. They are manifestations of urban poverty.

  • Land insecurity – Slums are usually located on land, not owned by the slum dwellers. They can be evicted at any time by the landowners.
  • Poor living conditions – Crowding and lack of sanitation. This often contributes to outbreak of diseases. Utilities such as water, electricity and sewage disposal are also lacking in these areas.
  • Unemployment – Since the number of people aspiring for jobs is more than jobs available, unemployment is a natural outcome of situation.
  • Crime – Slum conditions make maintenance of law and order difficult. Patrolling of slums is often not on priority list of law enforcing officers. Unemployment and poverty force people to engage in anti-social activities. Slums therefore, often become a breeding ground for criminal activities. The Social Disorganisation Theory discusses about the relation.

Environmental Impact

  • Temperature  Increase- Due to factors such as paving over formerly vegetated land, increasing number of residences and high-rise apartments and industries, temperature increase due to increased absoption of Sun’s energy and production of more and more heat due to very intense human activity.
  • Air pollution-Factories and automobiles are most visible symbols of urbanization. Due to emissions of  harmful   gases and smoke from factories and vehicles, air pollution results.High amount of suspended particulate matter in air, particularly in cities, which contributes to allergies and respiratory problems becoming a huge health hazard.
  • Changes in Natural Water Cycle – When urbanization takes place, water cycle changes as cities have more precipitation than surrounding areas. Due to dumping of sewage from factories in water bodies, water pollution occur which often resulting in outbreaks of epidemics.
  • Destruction of Natural Habitats of Flora and Fauna – In making of an urban area, a lot of forested areas are destroyed  which otherwise would have been  natural habitats to many birds and animals.
  • We have extended the urbanisation to the sea also. This tendency is damaging the ocean ecosystem also.

Benefits of urbanization

Urbanization is not all bad, it has its benefits.

  • Efficiency – Cities are often more efficient than rural areas. Less effort is needed to supply basic amenities such as fresh water and electricity. Research and recycling programs are possible only in cities. In most cities flats are prevalent. In flats many people can be accommodated within a small land area.
  • Convenience – Access to education, health, social services and cultural activities is more readily available to people in cities than in villages. Life in cities is much mored comfortable, compared to life in villages. Cities have more advanced communication and transport networks.
  • Concentration of resources – Since most major human settlements were established near natural resources from ancient times, lot of resources are available in and around cities. Facilities to exploit these resources optimally also exist only in cities.
  • Concentration of Educational facilities – More schools, colleges and universities are established in cities to train and develop human resources. Variety of educational choices are available offering students a wide choice for their future careers. In this age of  knowledge society it has become more and more important.
  • Better Social integration – People of many castes ,groups and religions live and work together in cities, which creates better understanding and harmony and helps breakdown social and cultural barriers.
  • New Markets-Internet has opened up  a new market world wide. Any one can sell in this market by posting  Free classifieds web   from the comfort of the home.
  • Economic Improvement – High-tech industries earn valuable foreign exchange and lot of money for the country. Occupational period briefings help in maintaining the work life balance.

All in all, if you still need essay help on urbanization topics from professional academic writers, don’t hesitate to buy essay from now.


About Rashid Faridi

I am Rashid Aziz Faridi ,Writer, Teacher and a Voracious Reader.
This entry was posted in Urban Studies. Bookmark the permalink.

27 Responses to Pros and Cons of Urbanization

  1. lenrosen4 says:

    Pros and Cons of cities is an interesting piece. The challenge we face is not one of choice for those in the Developing World. Necessity is driving rural residents to urban settings. Explosive population growth in rural areas necessitates migration. Are the skills or subsistance agriculture transferrable to the jobs available in urban locations? Can an informal city and economy found in the slums of so many Developing World cities eventually be integrated into the urban world they have joined? There are efficiencies to be had in city versus rural settlement. But until governments recognize the need for inclusion of informal settlements in building infrastructure and delivering services, slums will continue to be breeding grounds for pollution, disease and dissent.


  2. This was way more educational than anything my professor has attempted to teach our social class this quarter and we’re only halfway through at this moment. Thank you for this article.


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  4. there is need for us to post more


  5. Pingback: Slums are Manifestation of Urban Poverty | Rashid's Blog

  6. asfaw abera says:

    thanks ms Richard you saw the problem of slum but are many on the street


  7. No matter if some one searches for his essential thing, so he/she needs to be available that in detail, so
    that thing is maintained over here.


  8. Sangram BHUYAN says:

    Thanks Rashid wow its a very good way for spreading a lot of important things ..This pros and Con’s helped me lot in my educational sector ….


  9. Carter says:

    Aye thanks rashid you made me get an A in history. Thanks dawg. Much respect from the 513


  10. Jaswinder Singh says:

    Well done sir
    thanks for giving such nice thoughts


  11. Pingback: Causes of Urbanization: An Analysis | Rashid's Blog

  12. Kate Ross says:

    What are pro’s that urbanization has for the environment. You gave the con’s it has, but there are benefits as well.


  13. poo is my middle name says:

    very good way of setting it out and very impressed


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  15. khamis machano says:

    Thanks my colleague this will enough help mast of people at the rest of the world


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    lalallaa wtf wtf atyuwd


  18. Llamas r people too :3 says:

    Wow I’m in 8th grade and this helped me soo much!!


  19. Pingback: Urban Sphere of influence | Rashid's Blog

  20. your mom says:



  21. h says:

    very factual


  22. Pingback: The Pros and Cons of Urbanization | Kamcord

  23. Levi Ackerman says:

    This helps alot


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