The Process of Social Thinking has reflection in space. Urban Space becomes the Shaper for thoughts and ideologies. Activities and the ideological and concepts of social processes are related to space. To assess the effects of ideologies within urban space, there is a need for analyzing the urbanization in terms of social thinking. In order to understand social phenomena, it is also important to consider their spatial determinations, and their reflection in the urban.
It is not easy to develop a definition of urban space because such a definition must consider the social parameters of its constituent parts: urban and space. The difficulty of defining urban space is enhanced if one considers that urban space is an artifact of urbanization – a social process that describes the manner in which cities grow and societies become more complex. For example, a synergistic perspective of space situates the location of ‘‘urban’’ as an outcome of social and institutional forces associated with urbanization. In contrast, a structural perspective of space identifies ‘‘urban’’ as the product of social structures and relationships that typify urbanization. Combining the synergistic and structural perspectives results in the identification of social features associated with urban space.
According to Lefebvre (1978; 341) space is not independent from the power relations. It is political and ideological, and it is a product filled with ideologies.”
Weber,considers the city as an analogous subject of transformation from feudalism to capitalism. While focusing on economic and political organization in the conceptualization of city, he also underlines commerce as economic activity and relative characteristics of city as politics (Saunders: 1981).
Durkheim,explains city as an advanced level of labour division, solidarity among people and roles of these people. According to Marx, on the other hand, city is an arena of class division and struggle. Like Weber, Marx argues that city has crucial role for capitalist development. Like Marx, Engels considers city as an indicator of the capitalist class structure and relationship (Katznelson: 1992).
Here comes the Question of Public Space and its Manifestation
Once we agree that public space is necessary in a democratic society, the question then becomes, how should our public spaces function? One way to look at it is as a controlled and orderly space for retreat and recreation, where a properly behaved person can enjoy the spectacle of the city. Another way to look at it is as a space for open interaction, representation, and accessible to all, including marginalized people (Mitchell, 115). This type of public space allows for chaos and disorder.
Urbanism is a way of life today. We largely have to live with and in cities. Defining what makes a good city is more a matter of heart and soul than of engineering. It is an art of weaving urban fabric.