An estimated 30 million tonnes of solid waste and 4,400 million cubic meters of liquid waste are generated every year in the urban areas of the country. This estimation is based on the structured data base prepared for 299 Class I cities and 36 Class II cities as part of “National Master Plan for Development of Waste to Energy in India” being taken up under UNDP/GEF assisted Project on “Development of High Rate Biomethanation Processes”. The study concluded that 17(6%) cities have generation rate in excess of 1000 TPD, and 80 cities (26%) generate 150 to 1000 TPD. The balance 202 cities (68%) individually generate less than 150 TPD. The municipal solid waste (MSW) generation ranges from 0.25 to 0.66 kg/person/day with an average of 0.45 kg/person/day. In addition, large quantities of solid and liquid wastes are generated by industries. Most of the wastes generated find their way into land and water bodies, without proper treatment, emitting gases like Methane (CH4), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), etc, resulting in bad odour, air and water pollution, as well as increase in the emission of green house gases. This problem can be significantly mitigated through adoption of environment-friendly waste-to-energy technologies for treatment and processing wastes before disposal. It not only reduces the quantity of wastes, but also improves its quality to meet the required pollution control standards, besides generating substantial quantity of energy.
The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources is promoting setting up of Waste-to-Energy projects in the country through two schemes namely i) National Programme on Energy Recovery from Urban and Industrial Wastes and ii) UNDP/ GEF assisted Project on Development of High Rate Biomethanation Processes as a means of Reducing Green House Gases Emission.
The National Programme on Energy Recovery from Urban & Industrial wastes, launched during the year 1995-96, has the following objectives:
a) To promote setting up of projects for recovery of energy from wastes of renewable nature from Urban and Industrial sectors; and
b) To create conducive conditions and environment, with fiscal and financial regime, to develop, demonstrate and disseminate utilisation of wastes for recovery of energy.
c) To develop and demonstrate new technologies on waste-to-energy through R&D projects and pilot plants.
The scheme is applicable to private and public sector entrepreneurs and organisations as well as Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) for setting up of waste-to-energy projects on the basis of Build, Own & Operate (BOO), Build, Own, Operate & Transfer (BOOT), Build, Operate & Transfer (BOT) and Build Operate Lease & Transfer (BOLT). It is being implemented through State Nodal Agencies, who forward the Detailed Project Reports, received from the promoters, to MNES along with their recommendations in respect of financial, managerial and technical capabilities of the promoters and on assured availability of waste materials on a long term basis (over 10 years) for operating the project smoothly.
During 2004-05, projects based on industrial wastes were entitled to interest subsidy for reducing the rate of interest to 4% for special category States and 6% for other States on the loans availed by promoters through financial institutions. Besides, incentives to State Nodal Agencies for their involvement and facilitating in execution of the projects were included under the scheme. The financial support for municipal solid wastes based projects which was available during 2002-03 (capital subsidy of 50% of the cost of projects limited to Rs.3.00 crore per MW for demonstration projects and interest subsidy for commercial projects) and was under review for rationalisation.
A total of three projects based on palm oil industry waste, cattle dung & poultry waste were completed and commissioned during the year. The installed capacity of these projects was 5.00 MW, thus making the cumulative installed capacity of waste to energy projects in the country to around 46.50 MW till 31.12.2004. Out of these three projects commissioned during 2004-05, two were under the National Programme and their salient details are given below. The third project was completed under the UNDP/GEF project.
3.0 MW power project based on Palm Oil Industry Waste by M/s Sai Renewable Power Pvt. Ltd. Hyderabad, at Eluru, District West Godavari, A.P: The plant has been set up based on combustion of empty bunches from palm trees and residues of palm fruits. These remains are rich in volatile substances and will be used as a fuel for the boiler in the plant. About 100 tonnes per day of palm oil industry waste is being used to produce 3 MW of power. The total cost of the project is Rs.1376 lakh out of which 70% has been taken as soft loan from IREDA and the rest as promoter’s equity. The Ministry has provided interest subsidy to IREDA on the loan provided to the promoters. The officials of MNES have visited the project and it has been working satisfactory to the capacity.
1.5 MW power project based on poultry droppings at Namakkal, Tamil Nadu : The plant has been installed by M/s G. K. Bio-Energy Pvt. Ltd., Namakkal, based on biomethanation technology to generate power using poultry droppings from one million birds of nearby poultry farms. It is based on BIMA (Biogas Induced Mixing Arrangement) technology developed and commercialised by M/s Entec, Austria. The engines used for generating power are 100% biogas engines imported from Austria. The total cost of the project is Rs.1804 lakh, out of which about 50% is IREDA’s loan at commercial rate, 30% is promoters’ equity and about 20% is capital subsidy from MNES, which is being provided as interest free loan in the beginning to be converted into capital subsidy after successful completion of the project. The project has been commissioned very recently.
The project which was under various stages of installation during the year is as below:
2.5 MW Power Generation Project based on Poultry Droppings at Namakkal, Tamil Nadu: A project for generation of 2.5 MW power and 50 tonnes per day bio-fertilizer utilising about 600 tonnes of poultry droppings per day has been sanctioned to M/s Subhashri Bio-energies Pvt. Ltd. (SBPL), Namakkal, Tamil Nadu. The project is based on the indigenous anaerobic process developed by the promoter and its total cost is Rs.24.69 crore. The Ministry is providing a capital subsidy of Rs.600 lakh @ Rs.3.00 crore per MW by considering the project as a demonstration project and Indian Overseas Bank (IOB) have sanctioned the term loan of Rs.1308.34 lakh. The balance amount is being mobilised by the promoter as its equity. The Structural Engineering Research Centre (SERC), Chennai have been retained as consultant for vetting of structural design of the digesters and for supervision during the construction. The project execution is currently under progress and is likely to be commissioned by June 2005
In addition to the above progress on a few completed projects was continuously monitored whose details in brief are as below:
5 MW municipal solid waste (MSW) based project at Lucknow: The project has been executed by M/S Asia Bio-energy Pvt. Ltd (ABIL), Chennai on Build, Own, Operate and Maintenance basis in association with Lucknow Nagar Nigam (LNN) who are responsible for supply of required quality and quantity of MSW at the plant site. The plant based on Biomethanation technology started its commercial operation in August 2003 but could reach to a maximum generation capacity of 1.5 MW only by March 2004. The plant is presently facing problem in its operation mainly due to non-availability of the required quality of MSW free from debris, sand & silt. To solve the problem of waste supply, a meeting of the High Level Monitoring Committee, constituted for the project was held on 19th January, 2005 under the Chairmanship of Secretary, MNES wherein time bound action points were chalked out for implementation by the LNN and ABIL. It is expected that the problem of waste supply will be solved and the plant will start operating to its capacity soon.
6 MW MSW based power plant at Vijayawada: The project based on combustion technology has been executed by M/s Sriram Energy Systems (P) Ltd., Hyderabad by availing a soft loan from Technology Development Board (Department of Science and Technology) and Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA). It was commissioned in December 2003 and is reported to be operating to its full capacity with a mix of 30% of rice husk with MSW. The total electricity generated till November 2004 was 25 million units out of which 21 million units has been exported to the grid. Total MSW treated was around 50,000 Metric tonnes.
6 MW Municipal Solid Waste Project at Andhra Pradesh: Another project based on MSW on similar technology commissioned in November, 2003 by M/S SELCO International, Hyderabad has been reported to be operating successfully. It is reported that around 28 million of units of electricity has been generated till December 2004 by treating around 1 million metric tonnes of MSW since inception. The project was completed in 2 phases; one for preparation of pallets from MSW and the other for power generation from
A few proposals for setting up of Waste-to-Energy Projects, which were accorded ‘in-principle’ approval by the Programme Advisory Committee for Waste-to-Energy Programme during previous years were monitored for their progress in obtaining financial closure and other clearances from various organisations by the promoters before they are processed for necessary support from the Ministry. The projects envisage setting up of power projects based on poultry droppings, starch industry waste, sugar cane press mud, furfural industry waste and municipal solid wastes with an aggregate capacity of about 25 MW.
Two new proposals for setting up of projects based on municipal solid waste in Surat and Rajkot were developed which are also in the process of obtaining necessary clearances and other tie-ups made with different organisations. A few proposals for setting up of power generation plants from the biogas available at existing Sewage Treatment Plants in Surat were also developed by the Surat Municipal Corporation, which are to be supported under the programme.
The UNDP/GEF project was started during September 1994 with the objectives to set up demonstration sub-projects, preparation of National Master Plan, capacity building and publication of a quarterly newsletter ‘Bio Energy News’. The project is being implemented with the association of a few eminent National laboratories and institutions for providing assistance in the biomethanation technology related to issues like design, analysis of critical aspects of construction, supervision, commissioning, trouble shooting, monitoring and evaluation of projects at the demonstration stage. In addition, a couple of State Nodal Agencies have also been associated to act as implementing agencies for a few sub-projects. The waste sector considered for developing sub-projects under the programme are: i) Pulp & Paper Industry Effluent ii) Leather and Slaughterhouse Industry Wastes, iii) Vegetable Market yard Wastes, iv) Sewage/Municipal Waste Water, v) Animal Manure, vi) Starch and Tapioca Processing Industry Wastes and vii) Biogas Utilisation for power generation.
A total of 15 sub projects have been taken under UNDP/GEF project out of which 12 were already completed till 2003-04. During the year 2004-05 one more project was commissioned and its brief report is as below:
1.0 MW power project based on cattle manure at Haebowal Dairy Complex Ludhiana, Punjab: Haebowal Dairy Complex in Ludhiana, spread over an area of 50 acres, has 1490 dairies with an animal population of 1,50,000 and generate about 2500 tonnes of animal droppings. The project, based on BIMA technology, has been designed to use 235 tonnes of animal waste for generating about 0.965 MW electrical energy, most of which will be for captive use. The plant started power generation in August 2004 and has been operating at 60% of its capacity. The surplus energy after meeting the in-house power requirement is being fed to the state electricity grid. Besides, electrical energy, the project will also be producing about 75 tonnes of stabilised organic manure per day. The project is being implemented by PEDA, the State Nodal Agency with 50% financial contribution from the State Government. Constant monitoring of the project was ensured by organising meetings of the Project Steering Committee and through site visits.
Two other projects, which were under various stages of implementation, are as under:
0.5 MW power project based on slaughterhouse solid waste at M/s Hind Agro Ltd., Aligarh, U.P: M/s Hind Agro has a 100% export oriented modern integrated abattoir cum meat processing plant at Aligarh. The biogas plant being installed at their place is designed to treat solid waste generated from slaughtering of 1600 buffaloes everyday. The project for biomethanation of slaughterhouse solid wastes to produce about 4000 cum. biogas per day for generation of 0.5 MW power from about 50 tonnes per day solid wastes is under installation at M/s Hind Agro Ltd., Aligarh. The plant is being installed by M/s RSB Japan on turnkey basis under the technical supervision of Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai. All major indigenous as well as imported equipment have been installed at the site and civil work is nearing completion. The project is likely to be completed by June 2005. Regular monitoring of the project was carried out through meetings of the Steering Committee and site visits.
0.3 MW power project utilising vegetable market wastes at Koyembedu Market Complex, Chennai: The Biomethanation plant being installed at Koyembedu Market Complex (KMC), Chennai is expected to treat about 30 tonnes of Vegetable Market Wastes per day for generation of around 0.3 MW of power. The
estimated generation of biogas from the plant is about 2500 cum., besides generation of around 9-10 tonnes of organic manure having moisture content of 25-30% per day. The biogas produced will be utilised in a 230 kW imported gas engine having in-built co-generating unit for generation of electricity and thermal energy. The project is likely to be completed by March 2005. It is being implemented by Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority under the technical supervision of CLRI, Chennai. The installation of the plant is being done by M/s Enkem Engineers Pvt. Ltd, Chennai on turn-key basis. Project activities were monitored by making visits and organising meetings of the Project Steering Committees at the project site.
To explore the possibility of treating MSW at decentralised level in urban areas, details of smaller size biogas plants working on mixed urban waste in the range of 1-10 tonnes per day were collected from various suppliers/ technical institutions. One such technology has been developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and has been uccessfully implemented in the field. The technology is a modified KVIC biogas plant with two modifications made as detailed below so as to treat mixed biodegradable waste.
i) A 5 HP mixer has been introduced to process the waste before putting it into pre-digester tank. The waste is converted in slurry by mixing it with water (1:1). Usually this is the failure point as solid waste is too difficult to digest and can easily clog a system.
ii) Use of thermophilic microbes for faster degradation of the waste through aerobic process. The growth of thermophiles in the pre-digester tank is assured by mixing the waste with hot water and maintaining the temperature in the range of 55 to 60°C. The hot water supply is from solar heater/ biogas boiler.
To further improve upon this technology and standardise the design parameters for its large-scale promotion in the country, financial support was provided to BARC under UNDP project during the year. The outcome of the project is expected to be delivered by the end of financial year 2004-05.
National Master Plan: A National Master Plan (NMP) for Development of ‘Waste-to-Energy Programme’ in India, is being prepared through a consultancy organisation namely M/s Montgomery Watson Harza (MWH), Mumbai, as part of the UNDP/GEF assisted Project on “Development of High Rate Biomethanation Processes” The overall structure of NMP is to prepare a Road Map for Recovery of Energy from Wastes during the next 15 years. The draft document on the National Master Plan prepared during 2003-04 was discussed with all the stakeholders in a conference organised in Delhi on 29th April 2004 and is now under finalisation. The conference was attended by 60 officials from Central & State Governments, NGOs, financial & technical institutions, promoters, UNDP project beneficiaries, consultants, etc. The NMP is available on website: http://www.indiawteplan.com
Bio Energy Newsletter: A quarterly newsletter “Bio Energy News” (BEN) is being published on a regular basis since September 1996. The Newsletter focuses on developments taking place in the field of waste processing and treatment technologies, waste management practices, bio-energy, etc. Two issues of this newsletter were published during the year. BEN is also available on the website of MNES (www.mnes.nic.in) as well as that of UNDP (www.undp.org).
New R&D Projects
Two new R&D projects viz. (i) Demonstration of sulfdry process – a low cost hydrogen sulphide removal system for power generation: by M/s Engineers India Ltd., Gurgaon and (ii) Applied R&D applications of USAB system and energy recovery from tannery wastewater at CETP Dindigul, Tamilnadu: by CLRI, Chennai have been initiated during this year with financial participation from other stakeholders.
A National seminar on ‘Biomass based decentralised power generation’ organised by SPRERI, Vallabh Vidyanagar was attended by U&I Group official on 21st January 2005 wherein a status of the Ministry’s programme on Waste to Energy in the country was presented among the participants.
A presentation on ‘UNDP/GEF assisted Project on Development of High Rate Biomethanation Processes’ was made by the U&I Group officials in the UNDP/GEF session on ‘Integrating Global Environmental Issues into National Development Agenda’ at International Congress on Renewable Energy (ICORE-2005) organised by SESI at Pune during 20-22nd January 2005.
A Meeting was convened by the Ministry of Urban Development at New Delhi on 17th December 2004 with technology experts and developers to discuss various technological options available for the treatment and disposal of municipal solid wastes in a scientific and hygienic manner. The meeting was attended by the U&I Group officials.
A visit to 6 MW capacity MSW based power plant and RDF preparation plant based on MSW installed by M/s SELCO International at Hyderabad was made by the members of the Parliamentary Committee on Energy during 17-18th October, 2004. Officials of MNES and State Government accompanied the Parliamentary Committee. The Committee appreciated the initiative taken by M/s SELCO International in treating the MSW of Hyderabad City by way of installation of these plants.
To promote renewable energy devices including Waste to energy projects in urban areas, a national conference was organised in Delhi on 6th September 2004, which was attended by the Mayors, Municipal Commissioners of the country. A separate session on waste to energy was conducted in the conference wherein presentations on two projects, one on 6MW capacity power plant based on MSW combustion technology at Hyderabad, the other on 5MW capacity power plant based on MSW Biomethanation technology were made by the concerned promoters.